Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Les annees de transition: une epoque de changement.
Reveu et analyse des projets pilotes sur les questions relatives aux annees de Transition. Volume 1: Summary. In , the Ontario Canada Ministry of Education implemented the Transition Years project, an initiative for restructuring middle-grades education. This French-language document presents findings of a study that identified effective policies and practices used by the pilot schools. Data were derived from: 1 surveys completed by staffs in…. An Environmental Sociology for the Anthropocene. Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception.
Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to 1 theorize the causal connections between nature and society and 2 contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages.
Using the Anthropocene as a lens to explore this emerging view, it is argued 1 that current theorizing on the socio-natural assemblage needs to pay more attention to the issues of temporality and complexity, 2 that taking these factors into account reconceptualizes the nature-society relationship as a complex, evolving socio-natural assemblage, 3 that this evolutionary process needs to be understood in the context of cosmic evolution and the tension between entropy and the emergence of local complexity, and 4 that constraints on human development arise from the tension between these two tendencies, not from resource scarcity.
An environmental sociology for the Anthropocene, one based on assumptions about the nature of causal dynamics and context consistent with our understanding of current earth system science, is proposed. Biostereometrics In Art. Desuis mon enfance je suis un type soidisant visuel. Cette deviation etait toujours profitable pour moi, pour le clinicien , ainsi que pour le rechercheur scientifique. I1 y a trente ans, que dans l'Atlas Radioanatomique du Thorax nous avons deja utilis6 la conception de trois dimensions. Dans les derni6res edition de cet ouvrage nous avons travaille mke avec la guatrieme, le temps facteur.
DePuis cette 6poque-la je me suis ori-en-be vers les quatre dimensions, vers les mouvements dans l'espace et le temps. En projetant sur la surface du tronc un reseau quadratique, on pent compter de 3oo points d'information, si un carre est 2 This 2 cm. Simultanement on pent ainsi contraler les deplacement relatifs des differents points. Travaillant avec seriophotographie et ces dernieres annees avec Video, nous avons des documents cDntinuellement en trois dimensions sun la position actuelle en espace de notre modele.
On pent mesurer, reproduire la position momentan6e du sujet d'une frequence et dans la quantite desiree. Par exemple on peut les reproduire, une a une, comme une sculpture, en domontrant les changements d'un tronc humain pendant les mouvements respiratoires, comme nous avions fait en avec le sculpteur Istvan Bencsik en realisant nos differents modeles en inspiration et expiration. La methode est tres utilisable pour l'observation des mouvements sportifs on artistiques, comme le ballet par exemple. Come le mimique d'un visage explkue toujours l'6tat affectif d'un individu, le corps humain peut expliquer tart des chases entre les mains d.
Initial genetic work up for developmental delay previously included chromosome analysis and subtelomeric FISH fluorescent in situ hybridization. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization aCGH has emerged as a tool to detect genetic copy number changes and uniparental disomy and is the most sensitive test in providing etiological diagnosis in developmental delay. An illustrative case of a year-old man with long standing global developmental delay and recently diagnosed 4q21 deletion syndrome with a deletion of Les forets plantees, constituees par pl antati on ou ensemencemen t, jouen t un role de plus en plus important dans l'economie foresti ere mondia le, dans I a conservation des ressources, et dans Ia lu tte contre le changement cli matique.
à : to, toward, towards
Dans le domaine du Hydrogeology in North America: past and future. El campo se ha enriquecido por las contribuciones de investigadores distinguidos en todos esos campos. Contributions de la geographie et de la modelisation predictive a une etude de potentiel archeologique prehistorique en Gaspesie. Senegal: Background and U. Le rapport laisse While these have been manageable to date, the dimensions of a nation-wide security Dynamic Stability Parameters. Kingdom, the United States and West Germany.
Catte seconds pracddure act actuellement. Senior Staff Meeting. Une discussion suivra sur plusieurs points importants. Vest Ia raison pour laquolle cette solution est habituellement retenue. La confiance misc depuis dans le. Depuis lors, de nombreux progres. Maintenance in Service of High Temperature Parts. Sur des secteurs multipales, il -st possible que la degradation. For the first time, a device last become a reality as demonstrated in the Par exemple Sp6randio montro People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography.
However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon , champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book.
Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall Chap. Military Application of Space-Time Adaptive Processing Les applications militaires du traitement adaptatif espace-temps. Cependant, les retours de cible Also: AEU, Vol.
Advances in Guidance and Control Systems. L'optique spatiale au CES. Jai le plaisir d'inaugurer cette troisieme conference ICS0'97 consacree a l'optique patialc Les techniques evoluent tres vite; l'optique et l'optoelectronique n'echappent pas a c:ene regle. Depuis Garmisch. Conference B. Le Dr. Effets non lineaires transversaux dans les guides d'ondes plans.
Les effets non lineaires transversaux dus a l'effet Kerr optique non resonant sont etudies dans deux types de guides a geometrie plane. D'abord au chapitre 2 , l'emission de solitons spatiaux d'un guide de type canal est etudie historiquement, analytiquement et numeriquement dans le but d'en faire la conception et la fabrication, en AlGaAs, dans la region spectrale en deca de la moitie de la bande interdite de ce materiau, soit autour de 1,5 microns.
Le composant, tel que concu, comporte une structure de multipuits quantiques. Le desordonnement local de cette structure permet une variation locale du coefficient Kerr dans le guide, ce qui mene a l'emission d'un soliton spatial au-dela d'une puissance optique de seuil. L'observation experimentale d'un changement en fonction de l'intensite du profil de champ a la sortie du guide realise est presentee.
Deuxiemement au chapitre 3 une technique de mesure du coefficient Kerr dans un guide plan est presentee. Cette technique consiste a mesurer le changement de transmission au travers d'un cache place a la sortie du guide en fonction de l'intensite crete a l'entree du guide plan. Une methode pour determiner les conditions optimales pour la sensibilite de la mesure est presentee, illustree de plusieurs exemples. Finalement, la realisation d'un oscillateur parametrique optique basee sur un cristal de niobate de lithium a domaines periodiquement inverses est presentee.
La theorie des oscillateurs parametriques optiques est exposee avec une emphase sur la generation d'impulsions intenses a des longueurs d'onde autour de 1,5 microns a partir d'un laser Ti:saphir, dans le but d'obtenir une source pour faire les experiences sur l'emission solitonique. Cultural Alimentation in Latin America. Le Prof. Paolo Freire nom? ARRAY 0x29ad They are useful to analyse the spreading of John Brown theories in Italy, during the jacobinic and napoleonic time. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons?
Qui sont-ils? Les manifestations neurologiques sont assez diverses. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada. The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region.
Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation between current baseflow and peak-flow stages.
Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels.
La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee.
Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace.
La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales SONG traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images.
Nous presentons. Prevention, education and information: the role of the community pharmacist in the management of headaches. Headaches are among the most common disorders of the nervous system. A proper treatment of headaches requires training of health care personnel, careful diagnosis and recognition of the condition, appropriate treatment with cost-effective drugs, simple changements in lifestyle and patient education. Unfortunately, a large number of people suffering from headache disorders are not diagnosed and treated.
The unsatisfied needs in migraine can be faced by involving the pharmacist in the management of the pathology. To really understand which are the activities and the potential of community pharmacies in the management of patients with headache or migraine we took into account studies conducted around the world during the last 5 years. In Piedmont a specific study to identify migraine sufferers has involved the community pharmacies in the administration of a questionnaire, specially crafted by the Italian Headache Foundation FICEF non-profit association. Repenser ensemble le concept d'autonomie alimentaire.
Etude microdosimetrique de l'influence des materiaux sur l'efficacite biologique d'une source d'iode Cette these concerne les implants permanents pour la prostate. Les isotopes employes, le Pd et l'I, semblent produire les memes resultats cliniques: le premier a cause d'une radiation plus efficace et le second a cause de sa demi-vie plus longue. La recherche utilise le cadre theorique de la microdosimetrie et des simulations Monte Carlo. Elle montre ensuite qu'il est possible d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la radiation de I par l'exploitation des rayons X caracteristiques de la capsule.
Une source amelioree faite de molybdene et d'yttrium est donnee en exemple. Les applications ne se limitent pas au traitement de la prostate; le traitement du melanome oculaire et la curietherapie endovasculaire pourraient en beneficier. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium.
An integrated hydrological model MOHISE was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results.
Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves.
From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. L'influence d'un stage d'enseignement dans un musee de sciences naturelles sur le sentiment d'autoefficacite en sciences de futurs enseignants. Cette etude qualitative multicas est ancree dans l'approche sociale-cognitive de la theorie de l'autoefficacite de Bandura Elle s'interesse a quatre stages a l'enseignement qui se sont deroules au Musee canadien de la nature a Ottawa, Canada, en L'utilisation de donnees secondaires issues du questionnaire STEBI-B traduit et modifie Dionne et Couture, ainsi que des entrevues semi-dirigees ont permis une analyse du changement du sentiment d'autoefficacite en sciences chez les stagiaires.
Les elements les plus interessants de cette recherche sont l'apprentissage vicariant et la possibilite de repetition qui favorise une meilleure connaissance de soi et une pratique reflexive. Les resultats, dans l'ensemble positifs, illustrent bien le potentiel d'un tel stage afin de rehausser le sentiment d'autoefficacite en sciences chez des stagiaires en enseignement, particulierement chez ceux qui se destinent a enseigner a l'elementaire puisque ceux-ci ont souvent une formation academique dans un domaine autre que les sciences.
Le but de l'etude est de developper des methodes permettant de mesurer les proprietes thermomecaniques d'un acier martensitique lors de chauffe rapide. Ces donnees permettent d'alimenter les modeles d'elements finis existant avec des donnees experimentales. Pour cela, l'acier est utilise. Cet acier est notamment utilise dans les roues d'engrenage, il a des proprietes mecaniques tres interessantes. Le simulateur thermomecanique Gleeble est utilise. Il permet de tester theoriquement toutes les conditions presentes dans les procedes de fabrication.
Avec les tests de dilatation realises dans ce projet, les temperatures exactes de changement de phases austenitiques et martensitiques sont obtenues. L'effet des deformations sur la temperature de debut de transformation est montre qualitativement. Une simulation numerique est aussi realisee pour comprendre les phenomenes intervenant pendant les essais.
La caracterisation des proprietes mecaniques de l'os cortical est un domaine d'interet pour la recherche orthopedique. En effet, cette caracterisation peut apporter des informations primordiales pour determiner le risque de fracture, la presence de microfractures ou encore depister l'osteoporose. Ces techniques ne sont pas optimales et presentent certaines limites, ainsi l'efficacite du DXA est questionnee dans le milieu orthopedique tandis que le QCT necessite des niveaux de radiations problematiques pour en faire un outil de depistage.
Les ondes guidees ultrasonores sont utilisees depuis de nombreuses annees pour detecter les fissures, la geometrie et les proprietes mecaniques de cylindres, tuyaux et autres structures dans des milieux industriels. De plus, leur utilisation est plus abordable que celle du DXA et n'engendrent pas de radiation ce qui les rendent prometteuses pour detecter les proprietes mecaniques des os.
Depuis moins de dix ans, de nombreux laboratoires de recherche tentent de transposer ces techniques au monde medical, en propageant les ondes guidees ultrasonores dans les os. Le travail presente ici a pour but de demontrer le potentiel des ondes guidees ultrasonores pour determiner l'evolution des proprietes mecaniques de l'os cortical. Il commence par une introduction generale sur les ondes guidees ultrasonores et une revue de la litterature des differentes techniques relatives a l'utilisation des ondes guidees ultrasonores sur les os.
L'article redige lors de ma maitrise est ensuite presente. L'objectif de cet article est d'exciter et de detecter certains modes des ondes guides presentant une sensibilite a la deterioration des proprietes mecaniques de l'os cortical. Ce travail est realise en modelisant par elements finis la propagation de ces ondes dans deux modeles osseux. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs. Depuis sa formulation, la theorie de l'information a ete basee, implicitement, sur les lois de la physique classique.
Une telle formulation est toutefois incomplete puisqu'elle ne tient pas compte de la realite quantique. Au cours des vingt dernieres annees, l'expansion de la theorie de l'information englobant les effets purement quantiques a connu un interet grandissant. La realisation d'un systeme de traitement de l'information quantique, un ordinateur quantique, presente toutefois de nombreux defis. Dans ce document, on s'interesse a differents aspects concernant ces defis. On commence par presenter des concepts algorithmiques comme l'optimisation de calculs quantiques et le calcul quantique geometrique.
Par la suite, on s'interesse au design et a differents aspects de l'utilisation de qubits bases sur les jonctions Josephson.
En particulier, un nouveau design de qubit supraconducteur est suggere. On presente aussi une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est tres generale puisqu'elle peut etre appliquee a differents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'interesse a la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le detecteur suggere ici a l'avantage de pouvoir etre decouple du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours. Des proprietes de l'etat normal du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel. Depuis leur decouverte, les etudes experimentales ont demontre que les supra-conducteurs a haute temperature ont une phase normale tres etrange.
Les proprietes de ces materiaux ne sont pas bien decrites par la theorie du liquide de Fermi. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel, bien qu'il ne soit pas encore resolu, est toujours considere comme un candidat pour expliquer la physique de ces composes. Dans cet ouvrage, nous mettons en evidence plusieurs proprietes electroniques du modele qui sont incompatibles avec l'existence de quasi-particules. Nous montrons notamment que la susceptibilite des electrons libres sur reseau contient des singularites logarithmiques qui influencent de facon determinante les proprietes de la self-energie a basse frequence.
Ces singularites sont responsables de la destruction des quasi-particules. En l'absence de fluctuations antiferromagnetiques, elles sont aussi responsables de l'existence d'un petit pseudogap dans le poids spectral au niveau de Fermi. Les proprietes du modele sont egalement etudiees pour une surface de Fermi similaire a celle des supraconducteurs a haute temperature.
Un parallele est etabli entre certaines caracteristiques du modele et celles de ces materiaux. Les supraconducteurs en courant alternatif. Since , when the very first AC wire became available, the comprehension of electromagnetic phenomenas ruling over stability and losses of multifilamentary superconductors in AC use, has much improved.
Improvements of manufacturing process has opened up the possibility of industrial scale manufacturing of up to one million, nm in diameter, filaments. The AC loss performances and stability remains at the best level up to date. Les premiers brins supraconducteurs utilisables en courants alternatifs sont apparus en Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique.
Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene. Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D.
Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge PNC ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees.
A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge. Les perdus de vue PDV sont toute personne incluse dans un programme et dont on est sans nouvelles depuis six mois. La ML a un pronostic constamment fatal. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace.
Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc.
Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l.
Getting ready for crops' adaptation to climate change in France ; two complementary experiences : what lessons can we draw from them? The french agriculture is a sector particularly concerned by climate change: the scale of the already observed impacts and the expected climatic evolutions prevent any hesitation on the necessity of an adaptation of agriculture. This assessment is simultaneously shared by the scientific, political as well as the economic communities.
However, a generalized and organized movement of adaptation of agriculture has difficulty in emerging in France and maybe in other countries, while past decades have seen the development of research projects and publications on the adaptation to climate change. The Observatory is carrying on a regional analysis of historical trends of both climatic and agricultural variables. It has for ambition to help the agricultural world to better integrate the evolution of climate into its decision-making, for purposes of adaptation as well as mitigation. The observatory is run since year in the Poitou-Charentes region and is now being implemented in other regions in France Aquitaine, Pays de la Loire, Champagne Ardennes, Normandie.
The research project has looked into the impacts of various scenarios of climate change through the use of various techniques : mechanistic models Calvet et al. Informations regarding risks and opportunities for large crops in France is in the process being assessed though those tools and. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense.
Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail.
Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique. Un accumulateur echangeur de chaleur hybride pour la gestion simultanee des energies solaire et electrique. Cette etude porte sur la conception d'un accumulateur echangeur de chaleur hybride AECH pour la gestion simultanee des energies solaire et electrique.
Un modele mathematique reposant sur les equations de conservation de la quantite d'energie est expose. Un code de calcul est mis en eeuvre sur ordinateur, puis valide a l'aide des resultats analytiques et numeriques de la litterature. En parallele, un prototype experimental a echelle reduite est concu au laboratoire afin de valider le code de calcul. Des simulations sont effectuees pour etudier les effets des parametres de conception et des materiaux de stockage sur le comportement thermique de l'AECH et sur la consommation d'energie electrique.
Les resultats des simulations sur quatre mois d'hiver montrent que la paraffine n-octadecane et l'acide caprique sont deux candidats souhaitables pour le stockage d'energie destine au chauffage des habitats. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie.
Ce present projet de recherche a permis. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques.
Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA v, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA. Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee.
Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase.
Steagall, Paulo V. Change in genetic correlation due to selection using animal model evaluation. Das wiederholte Mehrmerkmals-Tiermodell approximierte die Information aus den Verwandten mit Hilfe einer Verwandtschaftsmatrix der zwei Generationen. Die genetische Korrelation nach der Selektion aus der Simulation und den analytischen Formeln wurde mit verschiedenen reellen genetischen und umweltbedingten Korrelationen mit zwei Selektionskriterien verglichen. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation.
Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences M. Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. We model the problem as a Round Weighting Problem RWP in which the objective is to minimize the overall period of slot activations providing enough capacity to satisfy the bandwidth requirements of the routers. Solving the full problem means generating an exponential set of simultaneous transmission rounds which is intractable even for small networks.
To cope with this issue, we implement a mathematical multi-objective model to solve the problem using a column generation method. We observe that the bottleneck is usually located in a limited region around a gateway. We propose a method to obtain lower bounds considering only a limited probable bottleneck region and upper bounds for general graphs.
Our methods are applied to grid graphs providing closed formulae for the case of uniform demands, and also optimal routing strategies considering non-uniform demands. Motivated by the results of the existence of a limited bottleneck region capable of representing the whole network, we consider a variant of the RWP dealing also with bandwidth allocation, but considering SINR conditions in a CDMA network.
We give sufficient conditions for the whole network to be reduced to a single-hop around the gateway. It is due to the fact that the problem is convex under some conditions that are often met. Communication networks and more in general distributed systems are undergoing rapid advancements. The last few years have experienced a steep growth in research on different related aspects. However, although the great promise for our future communication capabilities, several challenges need still to be addressed. A crucial ingredient for the successful development end employment of the corresponding arising technologies is the design of networks better suited for the management of large bandwidth and high quality services, as required by the emerging tasks, such as on-demand-video, multimedia and data integrated networks, seamless and ubiquitous access to system resources in mobile environments, secure on-demand data, and so forth.
In this thesis we focus on the analysis of the performance and complexity of distributed systems such as optical networks representing the main contribution of the thesis and wireless networks. More specifically, we consider classical combinatorial optimization problems arising in communication networks from two different perspectives. In the first part we consider the design of classical centralized polynomial time approximation or exact algorithms.
Such an investigation is conducted under a traditional computational complexity setting in which time constraints must be taking into account for tractability and efficiency matters. The above perspective implicitly or explicitly assumes that the resources of the system are directly accessible and controllable by a centralized authority, but this assumption in highly distributed systems might be too strong or unrealistic. Therefore, in the second part of the thesis we consider communication problems arising in networks with autonomous or non-cooperative users.
In such a scenario users pursue an own often selfish strategy and the system evolves as a consequence of the interactions among them. The interesting arising scenario is thus characterized by the conflicting needs of the users aiming to maximize their personal profit and of the system wishing to compute a socially efficient solution. Algorithmic Game theory is considered the most powerful tool dealing with such non-cooperative environments in which the lack of coordination yields inefficiencies. In such a scenario we consider the pure Nash equilibrium as the outcome of the game and in turn as the concept capturing the notion of stable solution of the system.
Under the above perspectives, the thesis makes different progresses on the understanding of a variety of problems in communication networks. Our results include: polynomial time algorithms, NP-complete results, approximation algorithms and inapproximability results; analysis of performances, convergence and existence of Nash equilibria in selfish scenarios. This thesis concerns the study of the algorithmic and the complexity of the communications in radio networks.
In particular, we were interested in the problem of gathering information from the nodes of a radio network in a central node. Nodes represent the houses of the villages which communicate between them by radio, the goal being to reach a gateway connected to Internet by a satellite link. The same problem can be found in sensor networks where the question is to collect data from sensors to a base station.
A peculiarity of radio networks is that the transmission distance is limited and that the transmissions interfere between them interference phenomena. We model these constraints by saying that two nodes radio devices can communicate if they are at distance at most dT and a node interferes with another one if their distance is at most dI. The distances are considered in a graph representing the network. Thus, a communication step will consist in a compatible non interfering set of transmissions.
Our goal is to find the minimum number of steps needed to achieve such a gathering and design algorithms achieving this minimum. For special topologies such as the path and the grid, we have proposed optimal or near optimal solutions. We also considered the systolic or continuous case where we want to maximize the throughput bandwidth offered to each node. The first part of this thesis is devoted to traffic grooming, which is a central problem in optical networks. It refers to packing low-rate signals into higher-speed streams, in order to improve bandwidth utilization and reduce the network cost.
In graph-theoretical terms, the problem can be translated into finding a partition of the edges of a request graph into subgraphs with bounded number of edges, the objective being to minimize the total number of vertices of the partition. We also provide a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for traffic grooming in rings and paths, with an approximation ratio independent of C. The study of the traffic grooming problem leads naturally to the study of a family of graph-theoretical problems dealing with general constraints on the degree.
This is the topic of the second part of this thesis. We prove hardness results in general graphs and provide explicit fixed-parameter tractable algorithms for minor-free graphs. The existence of such algorithms is proved using diverse techniques from topological graph theory and analytic combinatorics. Over the last few years, personal communication devices have invaded most developed countries and today, the majority of the population owns a mobile phone and most of them use personal digital assistants, mobile computers, etc.
This tendency is reinforced and occurs at the same time with a new trend: most of these devices get equipped with one or several wireless networking interfaces. More than allowing the connection to some access point as they can be found in airport, train stations, city-centers, restaurants, etc , these interfaces permit also to interconnect directly with one another in a decentralized way and to hence self-organize into ad hoc networks. A mobile ad hoc network MANET is a set of mobile nodes able to communicate with other nodes in their surroundings.
These wireless communications happen in a peer-topeer manner, without relying on any predefined infrastructure. But the steadily wider adoption of wireless technologies in daily life let one foresee the next generation of MANETs applications: environmental and medical monitoring, groupware, customer-to-customer applications, risk management, entertainment, advertising, etc. In order to enable the development and spreading of these applications, a number of issues have to be solved.
First, in such network, end-to-end connectivity cannot be guaranteed. Second, the topology of the network changes over time because of the mobility of the stations. Then, the way the communication primitives were implemented in the context of wired networks is no longer applicable. It is hence necessary to propose new algorithms to enable those primitives, like broadcasting that serves as a basic pattern for the design of many MANETs applications. The design and implementation of such communication schemes, and more generally of MANETs application, can be achieved using two different ways: either by building a real network, or by resorting to modelling and simulation.
In the context of this work, where city-scale environment were considered, simulation was hence unavoidable. The development of such a simulator took place at the crossroad of some projects in relation to complex system modelling, optimization and middleware design for MANETs, and conducted in several European countries.
This diversity led to the design of a custom simulator called Madhoc. Madhoc was primarily used for the investigation of the broadcasting issue. In this specific context, networks composed of thousands devices using a variety of wireless technologies were considered. These networks are partitioned and exhibit heterogeneous densities. This led to the design of a bandwidth-efficient broadcasting protocol called DFCN.
Two classes of algorithmic problems motivated by network thematics are studied in this thesis. The first problem is to estimate the number of distinct elements or cardinality of very large multisets while using a very small amount of auxiliary memory. The number of applications of this very simple question is surprisingly important. In particular, we may mention the detection of some kinds of attack against networks.
We proposed new families of algorithms to answer this problem. They are validated by mathematical analysis as well as by simulations with real traffic. The second problem is the design of efficient on-board networks in satellites. On one hand these networks must be able to tolerate a given number of mechanical failures of their components. On the other hand they should be of small sizes because of their extremely high cost.
We introduced a new class of networks and proposed minimal constructions in lots of cases. An optical telecommunication network is configured to transmit a given traffic in order to meet a given objective. However the demand changes with time and infrastructure development. The reconfiguration problem stands in this context. It consists in being able to alter the configuration of the network to adjust it to the new traffic. It is generally necessary to interrupt partially or totally the traffic to reconfigure a network.
Considering the amount of data flowing on it, it may not be possible to regularly stop the network, even for a short amount of time. Many parameters have to be taken into account to find out a good solution, and many metrics can be used in order to measure the quality of a solution. In a first part, we focus on the reconfiguration problem as a mono-objective optimization problem. We propose a mathematical model representing the reconfiguration problem.
However solving exactly the proposed model may require a high computational time. We also propose a greedy and a simulated annealing heuristics. Depending on the metric optimized, the solutions have different characteristics. The greedy algorithm is fast and provides decent solutions whereas the simulated annealing algorithm provides solutions competing with the optimal ones.
In a second part, we focus on the multiobjective aspect of the reconfiguration problem. We consider at the same time different metrics and search for a set of solutions representing different interesting trade-offs instead of a unique solution. We propose an algorithm based on our mathematical formulation. We also adapt an evolutionary algorithm. The proposed methods succeed in finding different interesting trade-offs. Giving a little flexibility with respect to a metric generally allows to significantly improve the solutions with respect to the other metrics.
This thesis deals with optical communication networks, especially free space optical networks and optical fiber networks. We give a model of these networks with H p,q,d digraphs which we characterize. We take a specific interest in isomorphisms between these digraphs and well known digraphs de Bruijn, Kautz and other alphabet graphs. We develop a family of alphabet digraphs which includes a large number of digraphs isomorphic to the de Bruijn and use it to obtain an optimal design of the de Bruijn with OTIS, in terms of minimizing the number of lenses.
Then, we study a family of networks modeled by directed hypergraphs and called stack-Kautz, for which we provide routing algorithms and control protocols. In a second part we address the problem of WDM network survivability using protection. This problem consists in using precomputed and dedicated resources in order to ensure traffic continuity if a bundle of fibers breaks down.
We describe numerous strategies for protecting the instance and the network. We go more deeply into subnetwork protection where protection resources are shared by sets of request describing a specific subnetwork circuit. We give an optimal solution to this problem when the network is a cycle and the requests realize the All-to-All pattern. We improve both of Burr's bounds. We make a conjecture that explains why antidirected trees are easier to handle.
We prove our conjecture for antidirected trees of diameter 3 and present some other evidence for it. In this paper, we study the geodetic convexity of graphs focusing on the problem of the complexity to compute inclusion-minimum hull set of a graph in several graph classes. In this paper, we answer an open question of Dourado et al. First, we deal with the class of complements of bipartite graphs. Finally, we prove tight upper bounds on the hull numbers. The load of an arc is the number of dipaths containing this arc. An internal cycle is an oriented cycle such that all the vertices have at least one predecessor and one successor in G said otherwise every cycle contain neither a source nor a sink of G.
We also consider a new class of DAGs, which is of interest in itself, those for which there is at most one dipath from a vertex to another. For that we introduce "good labelings" of the conflict graph associated to G and P, namely labelings of the edges such that for any ordered pair of vertices x, y there do not exist two paths from x to y with increasing labels.
A number of optimization problems can be expressed in terms of graph modification problems which have been extensively studied in the context of parameterized complexity. It was then natural to ask whether these problems also admit a polynomial kernel. However, the problem remains open on many natural graph classes characterized by forbidden induced subgraphs.
This paper provides positive and negative results in that line of research. Several studies exhibit that the traffic load of the routers only has a small influence on their energy consumption. Hence, the power consumption in networks is strongly related to the number of active network elements, such as interfaces, line cards, base chassis, The goal thus is to find a routing that minimizes the weighted number of active network elements used when routing. In this paper, we consider a simplified architecture where a connection between two routers is represented as a link joining two network interfaces.
When a connection is not used, both network interfaces can be turned off. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, the goal is to find the routing that minimizes the number of used links while satisfying all the demands. We first define formally the problem and we model it as an integer linear program. Then, we prove that this problem is not in APX, that is there is no polynomial-time constant-factor approximation algorithm. We propose a heuristic algorithm for this problem and we also prove some negative results about basic greedy and probabilistic algorithms.
Thus we present a study on specific topologies, such as trees, grids and complete graphs, that provide bounds and results useful for real topologies. We then exhibit the gain in terms of number of network interfaces leading to a global reduction of approximately 33 MWh for a medium-sized backbone network for a set of existing network topologies: we see that for almost all topologies more than one third of the network interfaces can be spared for usual ranges of operation.
Finally, we discuss the impact of energy efficient routing on the stretch factor and on fault tolerance. In this paper, we study a colouring problem motivated by a practical frequency assignment problem and, up to our best knowledge, new. In wireless networks, a node interferes with other nodes, the level of interference depending on numerous parameters: distance between the nodes, geographical topography, obstacles, etc. The total interference in a node is then the sum of all the noises of the nodes emitting on the same frequency.
In this paper, we aim at characterizing the class of graphs that admit a good edge-labelling. First, we exhibit infinite families of graphs for which no such edge-labelling can be found. We then show that deciding if a graph admits a good edge-labelling is NP-complete. We give a number of examples of polynomial instances as well as several NP-completeness proofs.
In graph searching game the opponents are a set of searchers and a fugitive in a graph. The searchers try to capture the fugitive by applying some sequence moves that include placement, removal, or sliding of a searcher along an edge. The fugitive tries to avoid capture by moving along unguarded paths. The search number of a graph is the minimum number of searchers required to guarantee the capture of the fugitive.
In this paper, we initiate the study of this game under the natural restriction of connectivity where we demand that in each step of the search the locations of the graph that are clean i. We give evidence that many of the standard mathematical tools used so far in the classic graph searching fail under the connectivity requirement. We make estimations of the price of connectivity on general graphs and we provide tight bounds for the case of trees. We also conjecture that this constant-ratio upper bound for trees holds also for all graphs.
Our combinatorial results imply a complete characterization of connected graph searching on trees. It is based on a forbidden-graph characterization of the connected search number. We prove that the connected search game is monotone for trees, i. A consequence of our results is that the connected search number can be computed in polynomial time on trees, moreover, we show how to make this algorithm distributed.
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Finally, we reveal connections of this parameter to other invariants on trees such as the Horton-Stralher number. Many safety-critical embedded systems are subject to certification requirements; some systems may be required to meet multiple sets of certification requirements, from different certification authorities. Certification requirements in such "mixed-criticality" systems give rise to interesting scheduling problems, that cannot be satisfactorily addressed using techniques from conventional scheduling theory.
In this paper, we study a formal model for representing such mixed-criticality workloads. We demonstrate first the intractability of determining whether a system specified in this model can be scheduled to meet all its certification requirements, even for systems subject to merely two sets of certification requirements. Then we quantify, via the metric of processor speedup factor, the effectiveness of two techniques, reservation-based scheduling and priority-based scheduling, that are widely used in scheduling such mixed-criticality systems, showing that the latter of the two is superior to the former.
We also show that the speedup factors we obtain are tight for these two techniques. We study a graph-augmentation problem arising from a technique applied in recent approaches for route planning.
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Many such methods enhance the graph by inserting shortcuts, i. Given a weighted, directed graph G and a number c in Z, the shortcut problem asks how to insert c shortcuts into G such that the expected number of edges that are contained in an edge-minimal shortest path from a random node s to a random node t is minimal. In this work, we study the algorithmic complexity of the problem and give approximation algorithms for a special graph class. Further, we state ILP-based exact approaches and show how to stochastically evaluate a given shortcut assignment on graphs that are too large to do so exactly.
We study the problem of gathering information from the nodes of a radio network into a central node. In this paper, we determine the exact number of rounds required to gather one piece of information from each node of a square two-dimensional grid into the central node. The even case uses a method based on linear programming duality to prove the lower bound, and sophisticated algorithms using the symmetry of the grid and non-shortest paths to establish the matching upper bound.
We then generalize our results to hexagonal grids. New technologies and the deployment of mobile and nomadic services are driving the emergence of complex communications networks, that have a highly dynamic behavior. This naturally engenders new route-discovery problems under changing conditions over these networks.
Unfortunately, the temporal variations in the network topology are hard to be effectively captured in a classical graph model. In this paper, we use and extend a recently proposed graph theoretic model, which helps capture the evolving characteristi- c of such networks, in order to compute multicast trees with minimum overall transmission time for a class of wireless mobile dynamic networks. We first show that computing different types of strongly connected components in this model is NP-Complete, and then propose an algorithm to build all rooted directed minimum spanning trees in already identified strongly connected components.
In this paper, we give new bounds on the Grundy number of the product of two graphs. IPTV systems attracting millions of users are now commonly deployed on peer-to-peer P2P infrastructures. Simulations show that OAZE leads to substantial improvements on the connections between peers, resulting in less switching delay and lower network cost.
We present a distributed algorithm to compute the node search number in trees. We consider devices equipped with multiple wired or wireless interfaces. By switching of various interfaces, each device might establish several connections. A connection is established when the devices at its endpoints share at least one active interface. Each interface is assumed to require an activation cost. In this paper, we consider two basic networking problems in the field of multi-interface networks. The first one, known as the Coverage problem, requires to establish the connections defined by a network.
The second one, known as Connectivity problem, requires to guarantee a connecting path between any pair of nodes of a network. Both are subject to the constraint of keeping as low as possible the maximum cost set of active interfaces at each single node. We study the problems of minimizing the maximum cost set of active interfaces among the nodes of the network in order to cover all the edges in the first case, or to ensure connectivity in the second case.
Interestingly, b can be bounded by a constant for many graph classes. Other approximation and exact algorithms for special cases are presented. We then provide approximation and exact algorithms for the general problem and for special cases, respectively. This conjecture has been verified for bipartite graphs by Voorhoeve in , and for planar graphs by Chudnovsky and Seymour in , but in general only linear bounds are known. In this paper, we provide the first superlinear bound in the general case. One of the new challenges facing research in wireless networks is the design of algorithms and protocols that are energy aware.
A good example is the minimum-energy broadcast routing problem for a static network in the plane, which attracted a great deal of attention these past years. The problem is NP-hard and its approximation ratio complexity is a solution proved to be within a factor 6 of the optimal, based on finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of the static planar network. In this paper, we use for the first time the evolving graph combinatorial model as a tool to prove an NP-Completeness result, namely that computing a Minimum Spanning Tree of a planar network in the presence of mobility is actually NP-Complete.
This result implies that the above approximation solution cannot be used in dynamic wireless networks. We show that although this problem is NP-complete even when restricted to acyclic digraphs , it becomes polynomial-time solvable when restricted to strong digraphs. We then show a polynomial-time algorithm to solve this problem. Efficient algorithms for computing routing tables should take advantage of the particular properties arising in large scale networks. There are in fact at least two properties that any routing scheme must consider: low logarithmic diameter and high clustering coefficient.
High clustering coefficient implies the existence of few large induced cycles. Therefore, we propose a routing scheme that computes short routes in the class of k-chordal graphs, i. We study the tradeoff between the length of routes and the time complexity for computing them. In the class of k-chordal graphs, our routing scheme achieves an additive stretch of at most k-1, i. In order to compute the routing tables of any n-node graph with diameter D we propose a distributed algorithm which uses O log n -bit messages and takes O D time.
Using these tables, our routing scheme achieves a better additive stretch of 1 in chordal graphs notice that chordal graphs are 3-chordal graphs. The routing scheme uses addresses of size log n bits and local memory of size 2 d-1 log n bits in a node of degree d. In this article we generalize the concept of line digraphs to line dihypergraphs.
We give some general properties in particular concerning connectivity parameters of dihypergraphs and their line dihypergraphs, like the fact that the arc connectivity of a line dihypergraph is greater than or equal to that of the original dihypergraph. Then we show that the De Bruijn and Kautz dihypergraphs which are among the best known bus networks are iterated line digraphs.
Finally we give short proofs that they are highly connected. In both works is given a distinct counterexample for which this inequality is false in general. Moreover, an alternative and slightly shorter proof for trees is presented, as well as for unicyclic graphs. Hence, to ease the task of the developers, some automatic techniques have been proposed to design self-stabilizing algorithms.
Population protocols is a model that was introduced recently for networks with a large number of resource-limited mobile agents. We use a variant of this model. First, we assume agents having characteristics e. We show that in the model we use, a transformer based on such an approach is impossible without the assumption of an unbounded memory agent.
We conclude with a comparison of the cost functions in unidirectional and bidirectional WDM rings. We study the performances of Nash equilibria in isolation games, a class of competitive location games recently introduced in Zhao et al. Moreover, we prove that the convergence to Nash equilibria is not guaranteed in some of the not yet analyzed cases. Routing and transmission scheduling have a major impact on the capacity provided to the clients. A cross-layer optimization of these problems allows the routing to take into account contentions due to radio interference. We present a generic Mixed Integer Linear Programing description of the congurations of a given WMN, addressing gateway placement, routing, and scheduling optimizations.
We then develop new optimization models that can take into account a large variety of radio interference models, and QoS requirements on the routing. We also provide efficient resolution methods that deal with realistic size instances. It allows to work around the combinatoric of simultaneously achievable transmissions and point out a critical region in the network bounding the network achievable capacity. Based upon strong duality arguments, it is then possible to restrict the computation to a bounded area.
It allows for computing solutions very efficiently on large networks. The cop captures the robber if both players are on the same vertex at the same moment of time. A graph G is called cop win if the cop always captures the robber after a finite number of steps. Nowakowski, Winkler and Quilliot characterized the cop-win graphs as graphs admitting a dismantling scheme.
In this paper, we characterize in a similar way the cop-win graphs in the game in which the cop and the robber move at different speeds s' and s, s' 1. We characterize the graphs which are cop-win for any value of k. We consider a variant of the graph searching games that models the routing reconfiguration problem in WDM networks. These measures respectively correspond to the maximum number of simultaneous connections interrupted and to the total number of interruptions during a routing reconfiguration in a WDM network.
Previous works have studied the problem of independently minimizing each of these parameters. In this paper, we give several complexity results and study tradeoffs between these conflicting objectives. In particular, we show that minimizing one of these parameters while the other is constrained is NP-complete. Then, we prove that there exist some digraphs for which minimizing one of these objectives arbitrarily impairs the quality of the solution for the other one.
We show that such bad tradeoffs may happen even for a basic class of digraphs. On the other hand, we exhibit classes of graphs for which good tradeoffs can be achieved. We finally detail the relationship between this game and the routing reconfiguration problem. In particular, we prove that any instance of the processing game, i. In this paper, we improve some bounds on the 2-frugal choosability and linear choosability of graphs with small maximum average degree. To prove this, we introduce a methodology based on the notion of core graph, in order to reduce the number of possible vertex configurations, and then we test each one of the resulting configurations with an Integer Linear Program ILP solver.
This parameter is closely related to the vertex separation or pathwidth. We consider the recognition and the characterization of di graphs with small process number. Czap et al. In this paper we improve this upper bound for some classes of plane graphs. We also show upper and lower bounds on the looseness of graphs based on the number of vertices, the edge connectivity, and the girth of the dual graph. These bounds improve the result of Negami for the looseness of plane triangulations.
We also present infinite classes of graphs where the equalities are attained. In the context of scheduling and timetabling, we study a challenging combinatorial problem which is very interesting for both practical and theoretical points of view. The motivation behind it is to cope with scheduled activities which might be subject to unavoidable disruptions, such as delays, occurring during the operational phase. The idea is to preventively plan some extra time for the scheduled activities in order to be "prepared" if a delay occurs, and absorb it without the necessity of rescheduling all the activities from scratch.
This realizes the concept of designing robust timetables. During the planning phase, one should also consider recovery features that might be applied at runtime if disruptions occur. This leads to the concept of recoverable robust timetables. In this new concept, it is assumed that recovery capabilities are given as input along with the possible disruptions that must be considered. Public de choix. Within this relative vacuum of stages for operatic production, the many stages of Paris which produced spoken dramas served as surrogates for composers to hone their craft.
Yet the genre was not merely used as an entrance to the career. Many composers continued to produce incidental music throughout their careers. That these composers were all well-established when they wrote these scores suggests that the blurring of generic boundaries was not undertaken to prove their ability to write in an operatic style, as a young composer might attempt. The importance of further studies of this genre is threefold.
First, study of incidental music illustrates the wide variety of institutions, composers and directors who were involved with music for staged entertainment in a manner which the study of opera alone does not. Third, comparative studies of opera and incidental music with similar settings and plots offers the possibility of identifying a wider degree of musical signifiers than would the study of opera alone.
Further study of incidental music in France at the turn of the twentieth century offers many possibilities for completing our understanding of musical and theatrical productions during this vibrant and dynamic era. Datable letters 1. Je crois que cela fera bon effet ainsi. Routledge, : Autrement ce serait bon le mardi Serait-il encore temps? Evidence dates this letter to 19 September Cher Monsieur Perrin, voici le manuscrit de la musique pour la Quenouille de Barberine.
French-English Dictionary (35,273 Entries)
Est-ce possible? This date, coupled with the reference to Lureau see footnote 12 below date this letter to January While I have not been able to date the meeting of judges for the competition, the meeting for the prior competition can be dated to 10 April , leading me to date this letter to April Delibes was bound for Brussels to assist at the rehearsals for the local premiere of Jean de Nivelle there on 28 November He traveled to Bayreuth in with Salvayre, Delibes, and the cellist Fischer to attend the premiere of Parsifal on 26 May.
Undatable letters The juried performances of cantatas that year took place on 23 June Voulez vous me permettre de vo[u]s renouveler ma demande. While letter 6. Si cependant il y avait urgence, veuillez me le faire dire par le porteur, et je me rendrais libre pendant une heure. Vous deviez prendre la peine de venir me voir?
Je vous ai attendu vers 6h, mercredi et jeudi. Voulez vous bien me le faire dire par un mot. Letter 3. A Monsieur E. Avez vous supplicie Dimanche quand? Le Coiffeur hommes — fr. Jamaux M. Jamaux is most likely a surname. The likely explanation is that the letter was written in early and included completed scores with projected performance dates, of which Rosalinde was not yet one. Thermidor, Griselidis etc. Adaptations et reconstitutions. These Parisian performances alone total to by Alfred Jarry. Reprinted in Jarry:Tout Ubu. Paris: Gallimard, The Swedenborgian Doctor Mises has quite rightly compared rudimentary works with the most perfect achievements, and embryonic forms with the most evolved creatures, pointing out that the former categories lack any element of accident, protuberance or special characteristics, leaving them a practically spherical form like the ovule or Mister Ubu; and, equally, that the latter possess so many personal attributes that they too take on a spherical form, by virtue of the axiom that the smoothest body is the one presenting the greatest number of different facets.
A few actors have agreed to lose their own personalities during two consecutive evenings by performing with masks over their faces so that they can mirror the mind and soul of the man-sized marionettes that you are about to see. As the play has been put on in some haste and in a spirit of friendly improvisation, Ubu has not had time to obtain his own real mask, which would have been very awkward to wear in any case, and his confederates, too, will be decked out in only approximate disguise. It was very important that, if the actors were to be as much like marionettes as possible, we should have fairground music scored for brass and gongs and megaphones — which we simply did not have time to get together.
We are going to make do with three complete acts, followed by two acts incorporating some cuts. I have mde all the cuts the actors wanted even sacrificing several passages essential to the understanding of the play , and for their benefit I have kept in scenes which I would have been only too happy to eliminate. For, however much we may have wanted to be marionettes, we have not quite hung each character from a string, which may not necessarilty have been an absurd idea but would certainly have been rather awkward for us, and in any case we were not quite sure exactly how many people were going to be available for our crowd scenes, whereas with real marionettes a handful of pulleys and strings serves to control a whole army.
So in order to fill our stage you will see leading characters such as Ubu and the Czar talking to each other while prancing around on their cardboard horses which, incidentally, we have been up all night painting. At least the first three acts and the closing scenes will be played in full, just as they were written. And we also have the ideal setting, for just as a play can be set in Eternity by, say, letting people fire revolvers in the year one thousand or thereabouts, so you will see doors opening onto snow-covered plains under blue skies, mantelpieces with clocks on them swinging open to turn into doorways, and palm trees flourishing at the foot of beds so that little elephants perching on bookshelves can graze on them.
And the action, which is about to start, takes place in Poland, that is to say Nowhere. Similarly, works after have been included for composers whose careers continued after that year. A wide variety of sources were consulted in the compilation of this catalog. The daily press, especially Le Figaro and Le Temps, was consulted for factchecking and resolution of discrepancies in other sources. The following abbreviations have been used: adapt. Jacob Christian Donner, adapt.
BnF-Mus D. II, vla. BnF-Mus Vma. Giraud et J. Menneret cites review by J. Revived at Orange, 30 July BnF-Mus Ms. II 2 ex. Reprised 14 July , played 13 times during that month. Drame BnF-Mus Vma. C-F 6R 24 Paris: Heugel, n. I, hn. II, cnt. I, vln. On conservera quelques morceaux symphoniques de Lulli. Thematic catalogue of pieces, 3 pp. Score published by E. Seven numbered movements. TH 8 manuscript parts, c. I, vla. BnF-Mus Vma Ms. Premiere at the Cirque Olympique, 29 November , with music by Fessy. Successful reprise on 27 January for th performance, the first of 30 performances that season Genty, Four movements arranged as a suite for orchestra by Bizet, four arranged by Ernest Guiraud as Suite no.
BnF-Mus Vmb 62 undated Choudens printed orchestral score, pp.
Chronique — Kroniek
F ; BnF-Mus Ms. Four of the twelve roles featured singers. Bizet, Paris: E. Menneret cites very favorable review by H. Tableau 2 given at Palais Garnier 24 December BnF-Mus K. Reached 35 performances in BnF-Mus G. Sporck, s. C-F 6P2 4 piano-vocal score, Paris: Heugel, n. Play also called La Quenouille de Barberine. C-F 6P1 score for solo voice and mandoline, Paris: Heugel, n. Dances performed by 40 musicians 2 fl. Songs by Adolphe Adam and incidental music by Adolphe de Groot. Menneret cites review by H. B-flat, fl. Play premiered by Sarah Bernhardt. Reached performances on 18 June ; subsequently reached performances.
Menneret cites reviews by P. Drame musical on same text by Xavier Leroux, Mouton, Paris: J. Heugel, ; BnF-Mus Fol. Drame en 5 actes, en vers BnF-Mus Ms. Revived on 27 March , with adaptation of play by Louis Piachaud performed 23 times. C-F 6P2 4 piano-vocal album of vocal music, Paris: Heugel, n. Leroux, Paris: G. Hartmann, n. Performed 13 times.
Play revived on 21 March , played 14 times with renewed success. Menneret cites review by P. This score also revived 18 December 4 performances , 1 May I, fl. II, bsn. I, II, vla. Five movements: 1. Performed 4 times in I-II, ob. Extensive use of melodrama. Hartmann, ; BnFMus K. Eight performances. Menneret cites P. Fromont, s. Score performed at Blankenberghe, Belgium on 3 August II 3 ex. Chanson 3. Charpentier restored by C. Performed six times that season. For english horn, 2 clarinets, 2 darboukas, grand tambour and petit tambour.
Durand, ; BnF-Mus D. Vm15 orchestral suite transcribed for chamber orch. Charpentier et E. BnF-Mus Fol. Nancy Drame For unison chorus and piano two- or four-hands. Instrumentation: fl. BnF-Mus L. Invocation II. Air de ballet III. Choral et marche; Paris: A. Grus, ; BnF-Mus K. Menneret cites H. Many subsequent performances used no music or newly composed music.
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For piano, female mezzo narrator, choir in the wings. Jack W. Revised in as a drame lyrique opera for Monte Carlo. Menneret cites a strident review by H. Durand, ; BnF-Mus Ms. Legend of the Marchand expedition to Egypt. Review by Paul Dukas in La Revue hebdomadaire on 31 October suggests that the work is more incidental music than opera. Played times by closure on 15 June. Reprised on 20 September , played 52 times that fall, reaching performances on October Menneret cites O. BnF-Mus W2, autograph manuscript piano reduction of overture, 2 pp. Flammarion, ; BnF-Mus K. Instrumental music and songs.
The orchestra was conducted by Chevillard. Reprised on 22 November for 24 performances. Vm7 Paris: Impr. Gael, R. Stoullig, Les Annales … , notes that 14 musicians played from the wings of the theater. Score comprised of preludes, short fragments of melodrama. Ozarien, Mme Fernande G. Vieu et J. Roussel Conte lyrique en 1 acte, en vers Conducted by Roussel. Demets, 15 pp. Demets, 30 pp. BnF-Mus 4o Vm5. I-III, trb. Extracts of Berlioz score played with complete translation by Gramont.
July Satz is of Russian origin. Performed 11 times in Premiered at Palais Garnier on 17 June , revived 8 February , performed 44 times there by Vm5 35 piano-vocal score , BnFMus Fol. Vm5 53 piano-vocal score with English tr. Vm7 Paris: M. Eschig, , 24 pp.
With Ida Rubinstein. Music conducted by Inghelbrecht; da Parma was a student of Puccini. Two orchestral suites arranged by H. Vm15 orchestral score ; BnF-Mus Fol. Score unpublished. Played 11 times with success. Preludes and symphonic interludes. Vm15 ; BnF-Mus Fol. Vm15 ; BnF-Mus K. C-F 6P1 44 piano-vocal reduction, Paris: Choudens, , 65 pp. Organisation, ; 2. Astruc, Gabriel.
Contract between G. Periodicals of French Theater and Music Almanach des spectacles. Paris: Librairies bibliophiles, Paris: Plon-Nourrit et cie, La Revue d'art dramatique [et Musicale]. Paris: Librairie Paul Ollendorff, Other Sources Agawu,V. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Albertini, Gabriella.
Lanciano: Ed. Quadrivio, Allenbrook, Wye J. Paris: G. Altenburg, Detlef. Sachteil vol. Zur Schauspielmusik im klassisch-romatischen Zeitalter. Arbelli, H. Paris: Ve Bouchard-Huzard, Paris: La Table ronde, Les Langages de Jarry. Paris: Klincksieck, Lire Jarry. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Arsac, Louis. Paris: Ellipses, Edited by Olivier Corpet.
Autrand, Michel. Barbier, Antoine-Alexandre. Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes. Paris: P. Daffis, Barrault, Jean Louis. Paris: Le Temps, Barrot, Olivier, and Raymond Chirat. Bassan, Fernande, and Sylvie Chevalley. Paris: Minard, Durand et fils, Beaumont, Keith. New York: St. Behar, Henri. Jarry, le monstre et la marionette. Paris: Larousse, Bernheim, Adrien. Preface by Jules Claretie.
Paris: Devambez, Berret, Paul. Berthier, Patrick. Betzwieser, Thomas. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, Blanchart, Paul. Preface by J. Ollendorff, Bonnassies, Jules. Paris: Baur, re-edited version of article from La Chronique musicale. Bossuet, Pierre. Paris: E. Joret, Bouchard, Alfred. Paris: Arnaud et Labat, Boucheron, Maxime. Preface by Henry Bauer. Branger, Jean-Christophe. Metz: Serpenoise, Albert Lavignac and Lionel de La Laurencie, Part 2, Vol. Delagrave, — Briscoe, James R. Claude Debussy: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, Brunet, Gustave. Paris: F. Caballero, Carlo.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Caraccio, Armand. Paris: Seghers, Claude Terrasse. Chauveau, Paul. Paris: Mercure de France, Preface by Claude Rich. Chevalley, Sylvie. Paris: Didier, Claretie, Jules. Paris: Gaultier-Magnier, Cohen, Gustave. Abbeville, France: F. Paillart, Paris: Rieder, , Constant, Charles. Durand et Pedone-Lauriel, Paris: Richard-Masse, Corvin, Michel. Paris: Bordas, Curtiss, Mina Stein Kirstein.
Bizet and his World. New York: Knopf, Dahlhaus, Carl. Daudet, Alphonse. Paris, A. Deak, Frantisek. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Dean, Winton. London: Dent, Debussy, Claude. Paris: Robert Laffont, Depaulis, Jacques. Champion: Paris: Librairie de France, Dufief, Anne-Simone. Paris: Plon, Dumur, Guy, ed. Histoire des spectacles. Durand, Jacques. Dussane, Beatrix Mme.
Lucien Coulond, pseud. Dux, Pierre, and Sylvie Chevalley. Ellis, Katharine. Esslin, Martin. Theatre of the Absurd. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Everist, Mark. Berkeley: University of California Press, Paris: Nouvelle revue critique, Fauser, Annegret. Schliengen: Edition Argus, Paris: Firmin-Didot, Edited by Arthur Pougin. Frick, John W. Vallillo, eds. Theatrical Directors: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Fulcher, Jane F. New York: Oxford University Press, The Ballets Russes and its World. New Haven: Yale University Press, Gauthier-Villars, Henry.
Bizet: Biographie critique. Paris, H. Laurens, . Geary, Jason Duane. Paris: Seuil, Paris: Armand Colin,