About Access. First Page PDF. Your Access Options. Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. Forgotten your password? Log In Via Your Institution. Purchase this article - DOI No access? Try this: Visit this page using campus wifi or a campus computer. In former times the trial and error approach, together with the experience and creativity of the steelworks engineers was used to improve the as-cast quality, with a high amount of test procedures and a high demand of research time and costs.
Further development in software and algorithms has allowed modern simulation techniques to find their way into industrial steel production and casting-simulations are widely used to achieve an accurate prediction of the ingot quality. In this paper some results extracted from the simulation software are shown and compared to experimental investigations.
Implementation schemes in NMR of quantum processors and the Deutsch -Jozsa algorithm by using virtual spin representation. Schemes of experimental realization of the main two-qubit processors for quantum computers and the Deutsch -Jozsa algorithm are derived in virtual spin representation. The results are applicable for every four quantum states allowing the required properties for quantum processor implementation if for qubit encoding, virtual spin representation is used. A stabilized finite element formulation for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric geometry; Uma formulacao estabilizada de elementos finitos para solucao das equacoes de Navier-Stokes em geometria axissimetrica.
The world energy consumption has been increasing strongly in recent years. Nuclear energy has been regarded as a suitable option to supply this growing energy demand in industrial scale. In view of the need of improving the understanding and capacity of analysis of nuclear power plants, modern simulation techniques for flow and heat transfer problems are gaining greater importance. A large number of problems found in nuclear reactor engineering can be dealt assuming axial symmetry.
Thus, in this work a stabilized finite element formulation for the solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for axisymmetric problems have been developed and tested. Greentowers in Frankfurt. Second life cycle of the Deutsche Bank towers; Greentowers in Frankfurt. Zweiter Lebenszyklus fuer Hochhaustuerme der Deutschen Bank. The two towers of the headquarters of Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt were modernized on the basis of a new climate strategy in order to minimize the operating cost and help protect the climate.
As part of its internationalization strategy, Roskilde University, Denmark, offers German language courses as an accompaniment to all bachelor students of the humanities and social sciences. This article introduces the context, learning objectives and organization of this so-called language profile How do they evaluate their learning results? Der vorliegende How do students experience The German Fukushima disaster.
The author states that that Fukushima accident has shown that severe accident are controllable even in case of deficient planning. The crisis in Fukushima had Japan specific origin and was the result of severe carelessness. The German and Swiss safety technology would have prevented the escalation of the crisis. Fukushima delivers extensive experiences for the further improvement of infrastructure, training and accident management.
The German phaseout hysteria is according to the author not based on facts. With permission from publisher, Aarhus University. The present study is a case study about the explicitation hypothesis in legal transla-tions into German and English by means of a corpus-based approach and will present preliminary findings.
Next I describe the aim of the cas Next I describe the aim of the case study which is to investigate the explicitation hypothesis by means of th Although there are more than active registered servers from around 50 organizations, setting up a DAS server comprises a fair amount of work, making it difficult for many research groups to share their biological annotations.
Given the clear advantage that the generalized sharing of relevant biological data is for the research community it would be desirable to facilitate the sharing process. Results Here we present easy DAS , a web-based system enabling anyone to publish biological annotations with just some clicks. The created sources are hosted on the EBI systems and can take advantage of its high storage capacity and network connection, freeing the data provider from any network management work. Conclusions easy DAS is an automated DAS source creation system which can help many researchers in sharing their biological data, potentially increasing the amount of relevant biological data available to the scientific community.
Origens das formas budistas. Bingo das Ervilhas. Concepts of good governance could offer new ideas for improving the enforcement rules. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch.
Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. My main argument is twofold. The market introduction fo the SIEMENS pyrolysis-combustion process is a technical and ecological milestone in thermal waste processing. It bridges the gap between conventional incineration and recycling and is ideally suited for the modern waste management philosophy.
The innovative combination of pyrolysis followed by high-temperature combustion produces energy and reusable materials nearly without emissions. Es fuegt sich als Bruecke zwischen herkoemmlicher Muellverbrennung und stofflichem Muell-Recyling ideal in das Konzept einer oekologischen Kreislaufwirtschaft. Die innovative Kombination von Muellverschwelung Pyrolyse und anschliessender Hochtemperaturverbrennung wandelt den unvermeidbaren Restmuell nahezu rueckstandsfrei in Wertstoffe und Energie um.
Desvelando a Internet das Coisas. Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende relatar as origens da Internet das Coisas, seu estado de arte e evidenciar seus principais vetores. CERN Multimedia. Horneffer, K. Fachbereich 15 - Geowissenschaften. Exemplary studies prove that the presented nesting scheme is suitable to resolve subscale phenomena in the regional climate model.
Some results of simulations above the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea were presented. Beispielhafte Untersuchungen zeigen, dass mit der genesteten Modellversion subskalige Effekte, die durch das grobe Raster des Regionalklimamodells fallen, aufgeloest werden. Dies wird anhand von Simulationen ueberprueft. Hauptuntersuchungsgegenstand ist die Insel Gotland in der Ostsee.
Duch die Nestung kann das Mesoskalamodell fuer tatsaechliche synoptische Situationen eingesetzt werden. Safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy - an IAEA perspective. After a presentation of the Agency's role in the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy, the conference gives an overview of the main issues facing nuclear energy in the following three major areas: the contribution of nuclear energy to economic and social development, nuclear safety, and verification.
In the last part, the Director General makes some comments about the future. The annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung e. The annual meeting of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung was held at Fuerth in northern Bavaria, a town that had its th anniversary in Subjects discussed at the conference were new materials, modern technologies, and innovative non-destructive testing.
The conference was held close to the ''Technikum Fuerth'' and ''Uferstadt Fuerth'', both of which are centers of research and seats of young, innovative businesses, which gave young scientists an opportunity to present the results of their work and allowed the DGZfPL to present itself to young scientists and to invite discussions.
The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch 's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel. I argue that Deutsch 's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves CTCs relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption.
Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires.
This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.
The research project started in April, before adoption of the cabinet report of the Federal Government to the German strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change. The German Strategy for Adaptation emphasizes the meaning of information about requirements for adaptation and the active involvement of all social groups in the other process of the strategy. For this the research project has made concrete proposals for the information, communication and participation of social groups. These proposals are based in the essentials on an interest analysis about interviews with stakeholders and the economy to their demands and expectations to the German strategy for Adaptation.
Besides we have researched international examples for the adaptation to the climate change for the public relations. For the interactive development of the Internet platform www. Das fantasias vazias ao referencial discursivo. From empty fantasies to dissertational reference. The purpose of the article is to analyze the state of a peculiar modality of fantasizing which we have named empty fantasies. Thus, in the field of empty fantasies, the ambiguity and the multiple meaning of the words are put aside and, for that reason, their statement becomes obsolete and univocal, in a way that they eliminate any metaphoric or symbolic possibilities.
We investigate the limits that those fantasies impose to the theory of the signifier, proposing, then, to conceive them as a writing delimitated by a series of elements that we have called discourse references. Hinkelbeinchen und "little chicken's leg": deutsche und amerikanische Idiome als kommunikative Textsorten-Problematik.
The paper investigates rock series suited as storage media and the temperature distribution in the subsurface of Southern Hesse. It gives an idea of the possibilities for hydrogeothermal energy use in the area. The densily populated Rhein-Main-region provides a good demand potential for geothermal heat.
Thermal anomalies could be localised.
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The Rotliegend-layers Perm provide the highest geothermal ressources in the region. In more shallow depth, the Hydrobia layers Teritary show reasonable values. To the north, the potential of these series decreases. Hence hydrogeothermal energy use should not be considered in the northern part of Southern Hesse. The highest potential can be expected from the Rotliegend layers in the area of Stockstadt and Biebesheim.
Waemeanomalien wurden lokalisiert.
Angeletics Work in Progress
Die Rotliegendschichten weisen im untersuchten Gebiet eindeutig die hoechsten Ressourcen auf. In geringerer Tiefenlage erzielen die Hydrobienschichten noch beachtliche Werte. Nach Norden nimmt das Potential der Schichten ab. Daher ist von einer Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie im noerdlichen Bereich Suedhessens eher abzuraten.
Die hoechsten Ressourcen in Suedhessen sind im Bereich von Stockstadt und Biebesheim in den Rotliegenschichten zu erwarten. Explores how language and political science professors can co-teach a course using the Language Across the Curriculum format to increase student understanding of a country's language and politics. Describes a Georgia Tech course taught in German on post-war German politics. Addresses the elements of a successful course and student and course…. The editors of the Digital Library have tackled the task of creating a library which enables one to find any work that one may be interested in looking up or reading.
Five years ago, a CD Rom entitled German Literature from Lessing to Kafka which present the complete works of select authors together with a programme that assists the user in better understanding their works. In so doing, however, women were almost completely omitted, as the entire CD only featured the works of four women authors.
In order to overcome this shortcoming, Mark Lehmstedt edited the above-mentioned CD which contains the select works of 62 women authors from the baroque period to the Weimar Republic. Their works are accompanied by the latest software version of the Digital Library. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear power. The Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.
Before a large audience of participants from Germany and abroad experts from science and research, industry and politics discussed a broad range of problems arising with respect to the future national, European, and global structure of energy supply. The new impulses nuclear power is receiving in the United States and in Finland were presented along with the contributions potentially coming from non-nuclear sources of energy, including the importance of renewable energies. The conclusion to be drawn from all contributions is the recognition that boundary conditions and constraints demand a balanced energy mix, which can be achieved only in a liberal environment free from any political or ideological discrimination.
Laukamp, H. So far Task VII focussed on a selection of architecturally outstanding PV buildings, on developing criteria to assess their quality and on a critical review of planned PV buildings. Das Fraunhofer ISE wurde gebeten, die deutsche Beteiligung hieran zu koordinieren und den Informationstransfer zu interessierten deutschen Firmen und Instituten zu organisieren. ContiTech has investigated the use of RFID Radio Frequency Identification and found that specially developed transponders can be vulcanized into rubber conveyor belts without impairing their performance capabilities.
The system opens up a whole host of new applications in bulk materials handling within various sectors of industry mining, steel industry, etc. Das System eroeffnet bei der Schuettgutfoerderung in den verschiedensten Industriebereichen Bergbau, Stahlindustrie usw. The proceedings volume contains abstracts of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft of September The abstracts discuss methods of analysis, ore deposits, dating methods, final storage sites for radioactive waste, waste treatment, environmental pollution with heavy metals, and the characteristics of coal gasification and coal combustion residues.
PW [de. Juran, H. All cooling tower construction built so far can be assigned fluidically to the cross-flow or counterflow principle. The new Matrix-Multiflow System, which was developed in cell-construction with ducted aeration for large cooling capacities of the industry and energy economy, corresponds basically to none of the two principles, even if constructively it represents a modified cross-flow tower with cross-flow film internals.
In the following the development, function, construction, defined properties and application demand of this patented cooling tower principle is described. It takes over adn extends the typical advantages of the cross-flow principle and minimizes the disadvantages with regard to the counterflow principle. Das neue Matrix-Multiflow-System, das in Zellenbauweise mit Zwangsbelueftung fuer grosse Kuehlleistungen der Industrie und Energiewirtschaft entwickelt wurde, entspricht im Grunde keinem der beiden Prinzipien, auch wenn es konstruktiv einen modifizierten Kreuzstromturm mit Kreuzstromfilmeinbauten darstellt.
Nachfolgend werden Entwicklung, Funktion, Ausfuehrung, markante Eigenschaften und Anwendungsbedarf dieses patentierten Kuehlturmprinzips beschrieben. Es uebernimmt oder erweitert die typischen Vorteile des Kreuzstromprinzips und minimiert die Nachteile gegenueber dem Gegenstromprinzip weitgehend. Projektet Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte- und Klimatagung This year's lecture programme includes presentations in the five working departments of DKV and 10 lectures at the special event ''Energy-efficient air conditioning in data centres''.
The main topics in the respective departments were: 1 Cryogenics: Space applications; Cryogenic plants; Cryomedicine and cryobiology; Components, developments; Processes and plants; Valves, design. Six papers are separately analyzed for this database. Demand for real-time computer assistance of experiments at PPPL has increased in volume and complexity.
The requirements of real-time computer support, the acquisition, archiving, analysis, and display of data for these devices, are described. It is examined the present status of psychotherapeutic treatment of depression, specially the impact of the four types of psychotherapy best empirically tested for the past 10 years: interpersonal therapy, cognitive and behavioral therapies, and brief psychodynamic therapy.
Both the main efficacy studies of those therapies as well as a meta-analytic review of their results are described. The conclusion is that there are already strong evidences of good outcome when ambulatorial unipolar depression is treated by psychossocial interventions, alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy. Standard elements ; Elements standards.
Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. The EPEFE agreement reflects the common interest of both industries to further improve the environmentally friendly behaviour of their products.
Furthermore it shows their awareness that additional cost-effective improvements can only be achieved through co-operation.
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Das EPEFE Uebereinkommen spiegelt das gemeinsame Interesse beider Industrien, das umweltbezogene Verhalten ihrer Produkte weiter zu verbessern und deren Bewusstsein, dass weitere Verbesserungen in kosteneffizienter Art nur durch kooperatives Vorgehen zu erreichen sein werden, wider. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements , particularly zinc and cadmium; Beitraege zur Multielement-Speziation in pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln: Studien zur Bindungsform zahlreicher Elemente unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Zink und Cadmium.
In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce two specimens , endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery two specimens , spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley.
Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus Ultra-Turrax in buffer solution liquid shearing. The homogenates were separated into supernatants cytosoles and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization solid shearing required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K.
All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. Ursachen stellen Entbindungstraumata, lokale Infektionen und Eingriffe am Rektum dar. Ergebnisse: Die Diagnose einer rektovaginalen Fistel ergibt sich aus Anamnese und klinischer Untersuchung.
Eine persistierende rektovaginale Fistel kann in der Regel nur durch eine Operation zur Ausheilung gebracht werden. Es wurden verschiedene Operationsverfahren mit niedrigem Evidenzniveau beschrieben. In neuen Studien wurde auch ein Verschluss durch Einbringen von Biomaterialien vorgestellt. Aufgrund des niedrigen. The first part of the thesis explains what CSR is, how can we identify responsible company and deals with the question of importance of CSR.
Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element. The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic.
A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements.
Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen. Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, it aspires to discuss some general considerations regarding the treatment of word-forming elements in a bilingual dictionary. It is argued that not few lexicographic decisions are to be made rather independently of fluctuating linguistic postulates and that the user aspect and the function of the respective dictionary should be paid special attention to.
Second, the paper examines the quantity and quality of the information provided on affixes in two German-Czech dictionaries. The analysis focuses on the entry components terminology, spelling, pronunciation, input and output units, sense distinction, translation equivalents, examples, cross-references, usage labels and productivity as well as on selectional criteria and information on affixes in the outside matter.
The analysis reveals that the dictionaries under scrutiny show considerable weaknesses with respect to the information provided. It is shown how contrastive analysis can be supplemented by a corpus-based view using new corpus-linguistic tools. Autologous Fat Grafting is a long established treatment in plastic surgery and does not differ from other tissue grafts. Mechanical processing of autologous fat does not provide any substantial change tot he tissue. If other treatment methods to enrich progenitor cells of autolous fat i. Nikolaus Harnoncourt"i juubel. Kent Nagano Deutsche Operisse.
Dirigendi tegevusest. Nagano kinnitati Berliini Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks aastast Dirigendi senisest tegevusest. Baieri Raadio korraldatava uue muusika sarja "Musica viva" kontsertidest. New high-speed multiple units for Deutsche Bahn for operating international services; Neue Hochgeschwindigkeitstriebzuege der DB fuer den internationalen Einsatz. This has resulted in a four-system train, the class It was then decided in to call for tenders for a multi-system train, which would also be able to run to southeast France and even as far as the Mediterranean.
Great difficulties are noted in human sciences regarding the definition and use of the concepts designating cultural phenomena. This also stands good for the musical area, in which not often arise certain confusion when one moves to the understanding of what the terms interpretation and performance designate. The present essay aims to answer to this task, urgent both from the theoretical and from the scientific viewpoints. As the analysis involves the translation and transliteration of fundamental concepts from one idiom to another, we first approach the criteria guiding their application within the historical context of the classical-romantic Viennese musical.
O livro das pequenas coisas. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Zwischen Schonung und Menschenjagden. Die Arbeitseinsatzpolitik in den baltischen Generalbezirken des Reich.
Arvustus: Westerhoff, Christian. Padeborn Jenni, accompanied by P. Raw material monitoring assists companies. Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks.
DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal www. BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.
Das Konzept des 'Medialen Habitus'. Ganz in diesem Sinne arbeitet der Artikel auch heraus, dass die aus dem Kontext der Cultural Studies stammenden Thesen zur Nivellierung kultureller Milieu-Unterschiede wenig empirisch fundiert sind. In his essay, Sven Kommer questions whether the notion of habitus is suitable to support the understanding of the obvious consolidation of inequality in the school system. He shows that all authors active in the continued use of the notion of habitus agree that it.
Adaptive finite- element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields. This paper presents an adaptive finite- element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current HVDC transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch 's assumption. A new iterative finite- element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity.
Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite- element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built.
It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis. Folksonomia: a linguagem das tags. Within the framework of the EU Eco Management and Audit Scheme, which addresses primarily industry, member states can make provisions at the national level to permit trade and service firms as well as public enterprises to participate in the scheme.
With the ordinance extending the eco audit ordinance which came into force in February , questions of environmental management and environmental auditing are now also becoming interesting for the non-industrial sector in Germany. Unresolved issues concern, for instance, site delimitation, product ecology, and indirect environmental effects.
Mit der im Februar in Kraft getretenen Erweiterungsverordnung zum Umweltauditgesetz werden in Deutschland jetzt auch fuer nichtgewerbliche Bereiche Fragen des Umweltmanagements und des Oeko-Audits interessant. Eine Reihe von Fragen ergibt sich, beispielsweise nach der Standortabgrenzung, nach der Produktoekologie und nach den indirekten Umweltauswirkungen.
The scintigraphic reaction pattern of traumatic bone lesions; Das szintigraphische Reaktionsmuster knoecherner Verletzungen. The indications for bone scintigraphy in traumatology result: 1. Definite exclusion of bone lesions by normal scintigraphic findings except for the scull. Unclear result of X-ray or a mismatch between clinical investigation and X-ray result. Screening after multiple injury which leads to the detection of an unknown bone lesion in every second patient. Suspicion of a complicated healting course in cases of doubtful X-ray results.
The estimation of relative fracture age. This question always rises, if a pre-existing trauma or morphologic changes in X-ray make a clear diagnosis impossible. The additional information gained by bone scintigraphy is in part exclusive and not to be drawn from any other imaging modality. This renders bone scintigraphy to an important tool in the work up of medico-legal questions in traumatology.
Ausschluss einer ossaeren Laesion durch einen szintigraphischen Normalbefund bei Einhaltung eines ausreichenden Abstandes zum Trauma bilden nur die Schaedelknochen eine Ausnahme ; 2. Die mit Hilfe der Skelettszintigraphie erhaltenen Informationen sind zum Teil exklusiv und mit keinem anderen bildgebenden Verfahren so einfach zu. Die Systeme der Feudalgesellschaft mit Leibeigenschaft und Sklaverei wirken bis heute nach. The Pyromelt process; Das Pyromelt-Verfahren. Redepenning, H. PyroMelt is a thermal process for waste treatment by pyrolysis followed by a melting stage.
The pyrolysis process produces the more or less homogeneous products pyrolysis gas, oil, and coke. In the melting stage, the inorganic constituents of the waste materials are converted into an eluation-resistant, recyclable granulated slag, while the organic constitutents are combusted completely without residues.
Die Pyrolyse uebernimmt die Aufgabe der thermischen Vorbehandlung der Abfaelle in die vergleichsweise homogenen Produkte Pyrolysegas, -oel und -koks. In der Einschmelzung werden die anorganischen Bestandteile der Abfaelle in eine eluationsresistentes und verwertbares Schlackegranulat ueberfuehrt. Gleichzeitig werden die organischen Abfallbestandteile vollstaendig ausgebrannt. Soja raamatust "Postmodernistlikud geograafiad" ja David Harvey raamatust "Postmodernne olukord".
von Alois Payer
Bibliograafia lk. Deutsch , , Manitoba's curriculum guide for German , , and is designed to 1 make teachers of these courses aware of the official policy concerning the nature, goals, and objectives of the courses and approved teaching materials, and 2 provide instructional guidelines.
The guide provides information about three sets of teaching materials from…. Das biochemische Rezidiv beim Prostatakarzinom. Der Verlauf selbst scheint prognostische Bedeutung zu haben. Transplutonium elements. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how the science of branding contributes to building strong brands. This is a survey, presenting brands for its transcendental bias, that goes far beyond the physical dimensions of consumer goods.
There was an explanation of how the tags are identified by their consumers, ie, the importance of them being significant in their performance and in their associations picture, since they convey feelings and deeply touch people's emotions.
Dr. Andreas Peglau, Psychologe, Psychotherapeut, Psychoanalytiker
All these aspects influence the type of relationship with the brand. Thus, we analyzed an institutional campaign bank Bradesco, studying the elements of your Branding, including positioning of the brand and the dominant archetype. The Neustadt-Glewe geothermal project - problems and experience during operation; Das Geothermieprojekt Neustadt-Glewe - Probleme und Erfahrungen mit einer laufenden Anlage. The scope and goals of the project and the principle of the Neustadt-Glewe geothermal system are presented. The system was commissioned in February , so that sufficient performance data and availability information are now available.
Problems that occurred are described and analyzed. Preliminary analyses of the consumption-dependent cost and cost distribution provide a basis for statements on the economic efficiency of geothermal projects. Nachdem die Anlage im Februar in Betrieb ging, koennen erste Betriebsergebnisse und Zuverlaessigkeitsaussagen gegeben werden. Es werden Probleme beim Betrieb der Anlagen geschildert und analysiert. Erste Analysen fuer die verbrauchsabhaengigen Kosten und die Kostenverteilung bilden die Grundlage fuer Aussagen zur Wirtschaftlichkeit derartiger Projekte.
Founded in , the Institute reviews a history of over 75 years. Students training at the Institute takes aim at a future emloyment in fields of research and development and design and computing. Both car manufactures and suppliers appreciate the practice-oriented education given at the Institute. The fuel index method as a new planning instrument in the erection and redevelopment of residential estates; Das Brennstoffkennzahl-Verfahren als neues Planungsinstrument fuer Neubau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Elsenberger, U. Physikalisches Inst. The fuel index method aims at the largest possible exploitation of conservation potentials in residential thermal energy supply.
The introduction of a thermal quality standard for thermal energy systems lays the foundation in process engineering terms for a competition between environment-friendly thermal energy supply and thermal insulation, with the aim to save energy and cost. Using higher-grade thermal energy at higher cost than current energy costs is approved of if its use involves an ambitious conservation aim.
In this way, particularly rational energy techniques are promoted. Mit der Einfuehrung der Waermequalitaet als Guetemass eines Waermeversorgungssystems werden die verfahrenstechnischen Grundlagen fuer eine auf kostenguenstige Energieeinsparung ausgerichtete Konkurrenz zwischen umweltfreundlicher Waermeversorgung und Waermeschutz geschaffen. Waerme hoeherer Qualitaet darf bei Vorgabe eines ehrgeizigen Einsparziels teurer sein als heute ueblich.
Damit wird der Einsatz besonders rationeller Energietechniken gefoerdert. Practical dictionary of environment, nature conservation and land use. Deutsch -Englisch. Hutter, C. More than 30, English and 30, German terms from these subject fields: agriculture, air pollution abatement, biotope conservation, climate protection, ecology, environmental administration, environmental eduction, environmental engineering, environmental ethics, environmental information, environmental policy, environmental research, fishery, forestry, hunting, landscape management, landscape planning, preventive health care, radiation protection, recycling, regional planning, settlement development, soil conservation, water management, waste, wildlife conservation.
Toxic Elements. She opens chasms between all beings, and each seeks to devour the other. She has set all apart to draw all together. With a few draughts from the cup of love she makes good a life full of toil. Mill, four of whose essays Freud translated into German. Ralph Manheim and R. Hull, ed. Jung, Briefwechsel, ed. Nur durch sie kommt man ihr nahe. Sie hat alles isolieret um alles zusammenzuziehen. New York: Basic Books, —7 , vol. I, 55—6. The popular appeal of the idea of the unconscious, which leads to some questionable uses of the term, comes about because the uncon- scious is seen as explaining how it can be that when we do something we may not really know what we are doing.
Have to! At the same time, this loosening can also be pathological: the link of the unconscious to madness is an enduring theme in modernity — though it is one which can also too easily be used as an excuse not to think about the social causes of pathologies. As Donald Davidson shows, if it were, we would just be talking about causally determined processes, which do not involve the interpretative elements involved in many issues associated with the unconscious.
The disputed borderline between nature and consciousness — which is the underlying source of the renewed debate about German idealism — is necessarily an issue in consideration of the unconscious. This has led to reflections on the limits of natural scientific explanation which have wide-ranging social and political implications. Schelling remains significant because he not only challenges dominant ways of thinking about nature in modern philosophy in a manner that prefigures some contemporary objections to scientistic reductionism, but also offers alternatives to some of these objections on the basis of his con- sideration of the unconscious.
The basic problem in this context remains, though, that an uncon- scious which could be directly encountered would obviously not deserve the name. Smith London: Routledge, , suggests the tension which underlies the debate. The question is what this allows us to infer about the unconscious.
But what sort of an entity is this, given that it is nei- ther present to our awareness, nor an object in any determinable sense? Language as a whole cannot be understood in terms of words corresponding to things, and the notion of correspondence has so far proved impossible to explicate in a generally convincing manner. Similarly, when we realize that our motivation was not what we thought it was, we gain access to something which was unconscious, but not wholly opaque — if it were, how would it cease to be opaque and how could it have motivated us with respect to our conscious relations to the world?
Something similar may apply to undeveloped thoughts which later emerge in clearly articulated 4 It may seem somewhat strange, given the mention of Freud, that I do not explicitly deal with the libidinal aspect associated with the unconscious in what follows. The brief reason for this is that the libidinal is only one form of the interface between nature and consciousness that is the basis of what I have to say concerning the unconscious. Once one accepts the notion of the divided self, the divisions can result from repression and sublimation of sexual impulses, but they can also result from repression and sublimation of other kinds of impulse.
What does it mean to say that these things previously belonged to whatever the unconscious is? Africa may have been something inaccessible to fantasize about for Jean Paul, but we can get on a plane. In certain respects this may well be the case. However, even though the sciences increasingly dispel myster- ies about some areas of mental functioning, if what is at issue cannot be reduced to causal terms, there may still be significant issues concerning the unconscious.
The sense of a limit to what causal explanation can achieve in this respect leads to a decisive point. Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, , vol. Language is itself not consciously produced, though once it is there it can be consciously manipulated, and seems to be located between nature and society: there is no society without it, so that in some sense it must precede society, even though it cannot develop without social intercourse. As Herder had already observed, given how much we unreflectively assimi- late from the cultures into which we are socialized, what we think and feel must be based on something which does not all come to the level of reflective evaluation while it is being acquired.
This symbolic and other expressive material can subsequently become rigidified and abstract, los- ing its power when subjected to reflection, and so creating the need for something which can replace it. The question is then how far conscious reflection can actually exhaust what is generated by such processes, and responses to this question have important consequences for modern philosophy. Schelling, Philosophie der Offenbarung —2 , ed.
Manfred Frank Frankfurt: Suhrkamp , Schelling, 2 parts, 14 vols. Stuttgart: Cotta, —61 , part 2, vol. I, 52 hereafter cited as SW, followed by part, volume and page numbers. They may, though, be dealt with via other symbolic and expressive resources, and this will be one of the reasons why the unconscious is often related to art, as the locus of what is not conveyed conceptually.
It also cannot be wholly internal to the individual subject, as its content includes the effects of symbolic and other aspects of the world which the subject inhabits. Despite such changes, it is clear, however, that what is in question must, given the constitutive role of repression in every culture, be in some sense ubiquitous. The separation of mind and world, which gives rise to modern philosophical epistemology, is arguably itself best regarded in historical terms. This separation, the overcoming of which is the aim of a great deal of modern philosophy, also leads to philosophical concern with the unconscious.
The familiar problem here is that if subject think- ing and object extension are separate it is not clear how they connect at all. Skeptical answers to this question can lead, as Descartes argued, in 10 See A. It is a small step from this idea to the idea of the unconscious as what threatens the transparency of our relationship to reality, but there are many differ- ent ways in which this problem can be construed, as the divisions within German idealism will suggest.
Bowie Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Heidegger, Wegmarken Frankfurt: Klostermann , By assuming only dif- ferences of degree within nature as a whole, this position seeks to avoid trying to cross a gap between two separate realms. This conception is, how- ever, not enough to set in train the specific modern forms of interest in the unconscious, even though aspects of it are relevant to those forms and do influence Schelling. The crucial other dimension has to do with the question of freedom, which, following Rousseau and Kant, comes to be seen in terms of the human capacity for self-determination which is independent of natural causality.
However, the manner in which Kant explicates the relationship between thinking and freedom soon indicates how things are not so straightforward. This interest results from suspi- cion of models of cognition that rely on the idea that there is a source of direct evidence which furnishes epistemological reliability.
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Indeed it is not images of the objects which underlie our purely sensuous concepts, but schemata. The idea of the schema plays an influential role in post-Kantian think- ing: Heidegger makes it central to the whole conception of Being and Time, for example. The crucial aspect of this sense of intuition is that the connection is not conceptual. It therefore does not come into the domain of knowledge, and so avoids the problems entailed by reflec- tion on knowledge that we have just encountered.
Whereas material nature can be seen as governed by necessary laws, our ability to apprehend such laws, and our 20 [eine verborgene Kunst in den Tiefen der menschlichen Seele]. Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Were the operations of the understanding not spontaneous, they would be caused like everything else in nature. Explaining how we could know that this is the case would then be impossible. As we saw, the result would be the kind of regress that made the intelligibility which allows the understanding of a cause as a cause, rather than it just being reacted to in the way animals do when they respond to their environ- ment, incomprehensible.
The core issue is how to conceive of nature if it is governed by determinism and yet produces self-determining beings who can both take their own stance on knowledge of the nature which has produced them and respond to their existence in expressive ways which cannot be reduced to a cognitive account of those ways.
In these terms what produces consciousness must itself initially be unconscious. How, then, is one to explain the move from nature under- stood as a deterministic system to it being the source of consciousness and freedom? This might appear as a move from total opacity to total transparency, but things are not that simple. It should be clear from the problems in conceiving of this move why the issues here are still alive. The reductionist strand of contemporary naturalist philosophy, which thinks that issues to do with consciousness will turn out to be questions of neuroscience, argues that there is no such move, and that what is at issue will be explicable in terms of the causal functioning of the brain.
The problem of this approach lies in explaining how it is that we are aware of this issue at all: the objective states of affairs which reductive naturalist philosophers invoke can only be seen as objective in relation to the judgments of a subject which can take a stance on what belongs to objectivity.
This stance cannot itself claim to be objective in the same sense, because the very idea of object- ivity depends on it.
One side of German idealism can be characterized 23 The person who realized the danger of a conception based solely on things condition- ing other things most clearly was F. Answers range from something close to a theological conception to an emphatic version of the Kantian idea that without the spontaneous activity of thought there is no intelligible world. For our purposes the interpretative issues are, however, not such a prob- lem, as it matters more how Fichte was in fact construed and how this affected the development of the notion of the unconscious.
If the world is really the free product of the I, why is it in so many respects not as we would wish it to be? Schelling, SW, 1, X: At the same time the necessities are seen as being inherent in the I itself, as otherwise the connection of mind to the world is threatened.
But nothing stopped a return with this I which is now conscious of itself in me to a moment when it was not yet conscious of itself — the assumption of a region beyond now present consciousness and an activity which no longer comes itself, but comes only via its result into consciousness. But what exactly is Schelling referring to? An I must be relative to a not-I and so not absolute , because otherwise it loses the characteristic, that makes it an I, of being in a self-conscious relation to what it is not.
Schelling, SW, 1, X: 92— The activity is unconscious, in the sense that it is the aspect of ourselves which makes reflective consciousness possible but cannot itself be thought of either as self-determined or as causally determined. The activity no doubt depends on causal processes, but these are necessary, not suf- ficient, for self-consciousness and self-determination. A key question is whether the move to self-determination can be as transparent as this implies, given that so many stances taken in real life are the result, for example, of internalized external pressure or of forms of self-deception, neither of which is self-consciously determined as such.
Such certainty becomes just a 27 That, as Davidson and others argue, reasons can be causes, does not mean that there is no difference between being consciously caused to do something for a reason and being caused by natural prompting or unexamined social pressure. Schelling suggests the importance of considering means of coming to terms with this situation which take one outside many dominant approaches to philosophy, and this is where his albeit quite short-lived concern with aesthetics and the unconscious in the STI is significant.
The decisive point will be that what is thought of in terms of the unconscious can be both a source of the lack of insight or self- deception at issue here, and of creative possibilities, most evident in art, which are not best understood in terms of conscious self-determination and knowledge. Schelling, SW, 1, I have detailed the way the tensions inherent in the relationship between tran- scendental philosophy and Naturphilosophie recur in Schelling in Bowie, Schelling and Modern European Philosophy London: Routledge, It is not the same as causal process or as self-determined action, but cannot be separate from them either.
That issues concerning the unconscious should be located in this space is unsurprising, given the combination of the natural and the intentional which we have seen as fundamental to the unconscious. Schelling, SW, 1, II: It therefore consti- tutively misses what it is seeking, because it cannot attain an external perspective on it. The idea of the STI is that we can come to understand what thought cannot objectify in concepts via what appears in art, which exists in object- ive form, and so relates to the conscious mind, but whose significance does not derive from its ability to articulate things conceptually, which connects it to the unconscious.
Apprehending the activity can, however, only happen by being engaged in it, so the activity can never be objectively manifest: by being engaged in it, one precludes stepping outside it. The claim of the STI is that it is through the encounter with some- thing objective which is not comprehensible in conceptual terms — the artwork — that we can infer how the unconscious workings of nature lead to the workings of mind and to human freedom.
In order to com- prehend an artwork we cannot just regard it in terms of what it has in common with other artworks, i. One way of trying to understand this is via the analogy to metaphors, which may take the form of conceptual judg- ments, but which cease to be living metaphors if they can be fully cashed out in conceptual terms. Consciousness is located between two inaccessible uncon- scious domains: one is unconscious because it does not reach the level of consciousness, the other because it must transcend the limitations which consciousness inherently involves.
In the activity which we are talking about here the I must begin with consciousness subjectively and end in the unconscious or objectively, the I is conscious according to the production, unconscious with regard to the product. Were it to do so, it would cease to be itself because the prod- uctivity would disappear into an inert product.
The fact that unconsciously driven activity results in something intelligible harmonizes freedom and nature. The logical structures of the STI are quite clear, and the metaphysics of the text pretty coherent, but can we make any contemporary philo- sophical sense of the implications of its account of the unconscious? The basic philosophical problem of the kind of metaphysics present in the STI has been suggested by Wolfram Hogrebe: However plausible it initially seems to be that the world which has produced a knowing being has to be thought in such a way that the producing forces are in the last analysis also capable of such a result, it is still problematic that these forces are supposed to be of the same kind as what they have produced.
Moreover, the elevated status attributed to art, as the locus of the resolution of the epistemological problems of the division between sub- ject and object, now seems hard to defend in the light of the history of modern art, which is not best understood as manifesting a reconciliation of freedom and nature. However, even though the positive claims of the STI are evidently problematic, its approaches to certain issues may not be so indefensible, and they can help to question aspects of the contem- porary revaluations of Hegelian idealism.
Hegelian objections The core objection to Schelling on the part of Hegel and his successors is that he fails to make the absolute philosophically transparent. Such fundamental conflicts can, though, be read as indications of instructive tensions in the motivations of modern philosophy, of the kind that are still apparent in some of the differences of focus between the analytical and European traditions.
What is clear is that the orientation is therefore predominantly epistemological — albeit from a perspective which seeks to obviate the very idea of a gap between subject and world, thus over- coming the difference between ontology and epistemology. Hegel 40 It is not clear that the remark is expressly directed at Schelling. This suggests, however, that there may be elem- ents of his vision which are also subject to the limitations of a predomin- antly epistemological orientation: it is noticeable how little of the wider vision of Hegel plays a role in the work of McDowell and Brandom, for example.
One response to the concern that Hegel may not have achieved this aim is, as some Hegelians do, to attempt to improve the system others just say it has not yet been interpreted correctly. But what if, in the light of the reliability of much modern science, one is not greatly troubled by the possible failure of this version of overcoming the epistemological divide? Ways of responding to that sense need not, though, be predominantly linked to epistemology, because the sense of division is except among certain kinds of philosopher generally not based on skeptical concerns about the truth of scientific theories.
In this perspective the issue of the unconscious points to ways of responding to our sense of a divided nature that results from what we can know conflicting with other ways in which we relate to our being. Such responses, as Schelling suggests in the STI, are apparent in aesthetic activity. However, the decisive source of his sys- tematic approach is the idea of overcoming skepticism by rethinking the implications of the failure of attempts to establish epistemological 42 Pippin stands out for his preparedness to countenance a Hegelianism which engages with a broad range of cultural issues.
Assertions about knowledge having its source, for instance, in unconscious drives must themselves have a source in unconscious drives, and so have no greater claim on our assent than any other assertions: they still have to be legitimated in the game of giving reasons. However, despite the plausibility of these objections with respect to the epistemological questions, the idea of the unconscious as relating to the interface between nature and mind is not exhausted by the demand that claims about this interface be cashed out in a philosophical stance that avoids the objections just outlined.
Espen Hammer London: Routledge, , — Forms of cultural expres- sion of the kind at issue here change and develop not least because they involve resources for responding to shifting tensions between what we know and the other ways in which we relate to the world. These tensions involve aspects which can be thought of in relation to the unconscious, because they cannot be made fully accessible in cognitive terms, and so demand other forms of expression. It is not, of course, that cultural pro- duction is immune to normative assessment, but such assessment is sec- ondary to what happens in that production.
The question is whether the philosophical understanding can in principle articulate everything that happens. More important is the production and reception of music itself as a non-conceptual form of expression that fulfills needs which conceptual articulation cannot. The changes in the understanding of language that accompany the revalu- ation of music are also not primarily the result of philosophical claims being definitively proven. They result rather from a sense that too much fails to become manifest when language is regarded as a means of repre- senting objects, rather than as the fundamental human form of expres- sion.
The effects in ques- tion can be both creative and destructive. Beethoven and Wagner can, for example, be understood both as bringing about positive revelations of new affective possibilities and as having potentially disturbing cul- tural effects via their destabilizing of received conventions governing the 45 See A.
A serious awareness of the history of philosophy makes it clear that philosophical claims seem never to be definitively proven: the practice of Anglo-American philosophy rarely explicitly reflects this. One of the strengths of the early Romantics is precisely that they build a sense of provisionality into the way they express their philosophy. The same applies, of course, to the cultural forms that they put in question, which both conceal possibilities and yet also enable other possibilities. This interplay between the hidden and the manifest can suggest ways of rethinking the notion of nature in the light of Schelling and the uncon- scious.
There are, it must be added, considerable difficulties here. Attempts to reenchant nature can too easily lead to using it as an ideological counter to what is held to be wrong with mod- ernity, when what one invokes may in fact only become manifest because of modernity. A further danger is apparent in Schopenhauer, who, by making nature the repository of the intuitively accessible, metaphysical principle of the Will which he, of course, connects closely to music , obscures any sense in which nature can be more than an arbitrary series of warring quanta of power.
However, giving up any sense in which nature can be a resource for meaning in modern culture, either because it can lead to an illusory reen- chantment, or because the brutality of nature means it is supposedly no more than the realm of eat or be eaten, seems to me mistaken. Although we rely on the sciences to substantiate fears about the devastation of nature, the genesis of those fears is not just a result of scientific confirmation but also depends on other forms of connection to the non-human world, and these can play a vital role in the responses to that devastation.
Once the relationship between nature and mind is put in question, it becomes dogmatic to claim exclusive legitimation for any conception of nature. But if, as consideration of the idea of the unconscious suggests, the division between the cultural and the natural is not as straightfor- ward as that between the self-determining and the causally determined, what is not articulated within scientific and philosophical views needs to be approached in other ways. These, as we have seen, are often associ- ated with the aesthetic, but the aesthetic should not be construed in the narrow sense of a specialized domain of philosophy concerned with art and beauty.
As Kant already suggested in the Critique of Judgment Kritik der Urteilskraft, , aesthetic questions can change how we approach epistemological and ethical matters. However, it may not always be adequate for responding to questions about why we should invest in what we seek to know and do.
What produces motiv- ation may be more accessible in expressive forms that embody our invest- ment, from painting, to literature, to dance, to music, than via arguments. The modern dissemination of the awareness of nature as a value in itself, rather than as a manifestation of the divinity, for example, results from the ways in which a new investment in nature is expressed in romantic culture of all kinds. Meaning in the analytical tradition is largely a semantic issue, other senses of meaning often being regarded as too vague to be given philosophical dignity.
However, the sense that the meanings nature can involve may become part of our relation to the world, and in ways which cannot be understood in terms of giving reasons, points to a dimension that some of the contemporary appropriation of Hegel seems to underplay. It is not that McDowell and others necessarily ignore the importance of the aesthetic, but they do not always pursue the impli- cations of expressive responses to nature with regard to the epistemo- logical agenda that dominates their perspective.
Conclusion In order to outline a way in which one might do this, I shall conclude by briefly looking at a few remarks by Adorno in his unpublished Aesthetics lectures, on the relationship between beauty in nature and beauty in art. The reason for this is quite simple: the question as to why we see nature as beautiful at all is, as the STI suggests, closely connected to the idea of the unconscious as having to do with the interface of nature and conscious- ness.
While we may sometimes be able to give reasons for why we find an aspect of nature beautiful in terms of the socially developed conventions 48 The obvious objection here is that the line between nature and its other is a product of social developments. This conception does not, one should add, entail the idea that natural beauty is something perennial: central to the conception is the emergence of nat- ural beauty as a response to historical developments in modernity, which is connected to the emergence of ideas about the unconscious. This concern is decisively linked to the question of how we are to understand nature.
As Adorno suggests, paradigmatic romantic cases of natural beauty — sunsets, etc. The model which explains beauty as an evolutionary advantage just relies on the kind of circular argument so common when the cultural is invalidly subordinated to natural causality. This does not mean that beauty has nothing to do with evolution, but evolution is not a sufficient explanation of the complexity of the phenomenon, which, as we have seen, necessarily involves both the intentional and the causal.
Theodor W. Even experiences of natural beauty can become distorted by the effects of the culture industry the kitsch sunset problem. Rather than nature being formally defined, it results from the interface between the human and the non-human, in which each changes as the other changes, and it is here that reflection on the unconscious must be located. It cannot be brought to explicit con- ceptual consciousness, and therefore constantly poses the challenge of how it can be expressed: that is a key source of the constant demand for aesthetic innovation in modernity that enables art to remain expressive.
If there were a propositionally statable truth about the relationship, phil- osophy would transcend natural beauty and art, in the manner Hegel suggests it does, but the sense that meaning-creating resources play a rela- tively minor role in modern philosophy after Hegel seems to contradict a strong version of the Hegelian view.
How we register and respond to these effects is not just a matter of theoretical claims, but of being able to express those effects in a manner which does justice to them by enabling people to connect to what they may mean. They allow one to ask why it is that, even though modern science constantly confirms its efficacy in many domains, the question of the validation of knowledge still dominates much modern philosophy.
They rather reveal the limits of a too narrowly conceived rationality which has no place for what we have considered in relation to the shifting tensions in modernity between nature and mind, which demand new forms of expression. There are no easy answers here, but the choices highlight some key issues in contemporary philosophy. The unconscious can be a realm of dangerous fantasies, but it can also be the source of visions of hope. Despite the much-disputed scientific status of psychoanalysis, even as late as the second half of the twentieth century Michel Foucault saw the unconscious as an epistemological category which demarcates not only psychoanalysis or psychology, but also the field of the human sciences in general.
The pressure placed upon the very concept of Wissenschaft is registered in how the function of this term changed in the second half of the nineteenth century, when academic disciplines under- went the processes of demarcation and professionalization that led to the establishment of modern research universities as we know them today. In the early stages of the nineteenth century in Germany, Wissenschaft could refer to any body of knowledge that elaborated a systematic meth- odology and could be taught as an academic discipline, independently of any materialist or empirical basis. Meier-Oeser, and H.
XII, —47; here — Wilhelm Weischedel Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, , vol. V, 12— Helmholtz begins his lecture by declaring that the age of the Renaissance man — in which, for example, Johannes Kepler — could simultaneously hold professorships in mathematics and morals — is over. Due to the increased level of specialization and detail achieved in the various disciplines of both the natural and the human sciences, it is no longer possible, declared Helmholtz, to offer grand syntheses which would combine the human and natural sciences into a unified body of knowledge.
Jahrhundert, ed. Jahrhundert, —; H. I, 4th edn. Braunschweig: Vieweg, , —85; here It was in this way that a sharply defined opposition scharfer Gegensatz between the natural and human sciences came into being, an opposition which, argued Helmholtz, often saw the human sciences being denied any scientific status at all. The scientific unconscious 91 great German example of unconscious artistic productivity and intui- tive aesthetic sense. This topic is most directly considered by Freud himself, in an address written on the occasion of his receiving the Goethe Prize in Karl Schlechta Munich: Hanser, , vol.
James Strachey and Anna Freud et al. London: The Hogarth Press, —74 , vol. XXI, —2; hereafter cited as SE followed by volume and page numbers. Anna Freud et al. Fischer, —99 , vol. XIV, —50; here- after cited as GW followed by volume and page numbers. Frederick Amrine, Francis J. Zucker and Harvey Wheeler Dodrecht: Kluwer, , 83— As such, it does not successfully demonstrate the existence of a clear line of influence from Goethe to Freud with respect to the concept of the unconscious. At the same time, however, Goethe stood at the very core of theoretical justifica- tions of the Geisteswissenschaften as they were elaborated by their chief late nineteenth-century German proponent: Wilhelm Dilthey.
XXV, 11— I, 8—9. Munich: Beck, —9 vol. I, —8. The Goethe invoked by Freud as a forerunner of psychoanalysis was the Goethe of Faust, rather than the Goethe who wrote the essays on scientific method that led to the Theory of Color. And, perhaps more importantly, does Goethe in fact elaborate a concept of the uncon- scious that is in any way similar to the various notions of the unconscious developed by Freud and his successors? My attempt to answer these questions will be guided by the follow- ing hypothesis.
The scientific unconscious 95 of this volume, literary examples alluding to unconscious processes were legion in early nineteenth-century German literature, and Goethe was by no means the only author who focused upon such themes. Rather, it is in his essays on scientific method that Goethe draws attention to issues which are relevant both to theories of the unconscious as they are elabo- rated in psychoanalysis, as well as to historical and contemporary discus- sions on the relations between the natural and human sciences.
It moves through the facial expres- sions and unarticulated sounds to the level of reason, where at last it seizes upon language, and here, too, through most subtle differentiation it loses itself at last in a clarity that gives it identity … In affect one perceives the most com- prehensive sensuous unity without being able to bring it into correspondence with the intellect.
Richter, H. Miller and G. Sauder, 21 vols. XII, ed. Douglas Miller New York: Suhrkamp, , 28— Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, , vol. Ernest A. Merze and Karl Merges, trans. The genius is the figure who is best able to mediate between the natural force of Affekt and the rational requirements of linguistic expression.
Yet since this sense of infinity cannot be an object of our con- scious thoughts kann von uns nicht gedacht werden then it follows that it remains to some degree unconscious. Arnold, M. Bollacher, et al. I, 88— My emphasis in the English. VII, —4. Edwin Curley Harmondsworth: Penguin, , V, ed. Marveling at his own unconscious artistic powers, Goethe observes that Since I had written this little work rather unconsciously, like a somnam- bulist, I was amazed myself when I looked through it to make changes and improvements.
Braunschweig: Vieweg, , vol. I, 23—47; here The scientific unconscious 99 conceptual apparatus. Goethe] away. Nevertheless, this last and most trenchant of criticisms does not prevent Du Bois-Reymond from identi- fying the fate of Goethe the poet, not the scientist! Ibid, But since intuition is not the same as the mechanistic explanations required by the modern natural sciences, it took Darwin to give these ideas a proper scientific framework in his theory of natural selection.
As both Wilhelm W. II, —61; here Amrine, F. Zucker and H. Wheeler Dordrecht: D. Nature is the All: she is both a mother and an artist who brings objects into being without any sign of effort, and who speaks through the tongues and hearts of her creatures. Here Goethe writes that although he cannot remember having written the fragment, it none- theless represents the pantheistic sentiments regarding nature which were part of his world-view during the s and s.
The text, written by G. For a broader discussion of debates concerning the authorship of this fragment, see Hemecker, Vor Freud, 96— See Hemecker, Vor Freud, 78—9. London: Fontana, , The scientific unconscious all knowledge not only begins, but also emerges, from empirical experi- ence. One method of refining this model was to revise it in light of further clinical experience. Another way of strength- ening and defending this model — albeit in cultural rather than in strictly scientific terms — was to list worthy precursors who had purportedly anticipated some of its precepts.
The first of these is taken from the dedication Zuneigung in the first part of Faust: Again ye come, ye hovering forms! I find ye, As early to my clouded sight ye shone! Shall I attempt, this once, to seize and bind ye? II, 1. The scientific unconscious a developmental archetype for all forms of plant life. The poem is normally interpreted as being primarily about the desire to pos- sess a love-object, and secondarily about the relationship between human 71 See the most recent commentary on this poem in Goethe, FA, 1, I: —8. I have replaced the translation that appears in the Standard Edition with my own rendering.
Witte et al. The scientific unconscious consciousness and nature. The last stanza in particular focuses upon the extent to which there is a connection between human subjectivity and nature of which the human subject itself is not fully aware. It could, with some justification, be protested here that I am analyzing in rather too much detail a text that the elderly Freud wrote in some haste in order to make some fitting and appropriate remarks upon his receipt of the Goethe Prize.
At the same time, however, this influence arguably belongs not to the epis- temology, but rather to the rhetoric of psychoanalysis. Woldemar Freiherr von Biedermann, 9 vols. Leipzig: Biedermann, —91 , vol. The daemonic individual is thus seen as a preternaturally creative figure who is a mediator of pantheistic nature. In the case of daemonic individuals like Shakespeare, Mozart, or Byron, Goethe argues that this mediation produces artistic works; but in the case of Napoleon, who for Goethe was the daemonic individual par excellence, this uncon- scious productivity can also lead to political acts, some of which may be less than rational and of a dubious moral status.
Freud would no doubt have been aware of the vitalist tradition-line of the unconscious to which Goethe belonged — indeed he 80 See Klages, Goethe als Seelenforscher, 36— Yet here one cannot necessarily assume that such an abstract opposition between the natural sciences on the one hand and literary-philosophical culture on the other actually existed in the late nineteenth century.
Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall London: Continuum, , — In fact, Goethe managed, mainly through Poetry and Truth and the conversations with Johann Peter Eckermann, to interpret his own life and works in terms of the theory of the unconscious that emerged during the Storm and Stress period, and was later refined in the era of Weimar classicism.
The young Goethe is accordingly seen as the poet who is almost overwhelmed by the force of his own subjectivity, but who later manages to bring these unconscious elements under some control through the use of formal aesthetic elements derived from the cultures of classical Greece and Rome, and by undertaking sensuous research into objective nature.
I sus- pect, moreover, that if the mature Freud had been aware of this philoso- phy of science, he would have had more persuasive grounds for invoking Goethe as his intellectual forebear. His concern was to unite the concrete particulars of individual objects on the one hand, with a general theory of nature on the other.
Empirical observations were seen as being of pri- mary importance, but they should nevertheless lead to general synthetic archetypes that might at least heuristically reveal something about nature as a totality. Elinor S. Schaffer Berlin: De Gruyter, , 51—65; here